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- Rulandus: i.e., Ashes, Orpine; an Arabic term.
- TABALLA ET 'I'ABIELLA TRANSVERSA
- Rulandus: A Transverse Counter.
- Rulandus: Crossed Boards.
- Rulandus: i.e., Bleaching.
- Rulandus: A Screen.
- TABULA FERREA
- Rulandus: is a Hemispheric Instrument with Furrows or
Cavities for receiving the Overflow in Testing and Assaying.
- TABULATA FOLLIUM
- Rulandus: The Boards of the Bellows.
- Rulandus: Peacocks' Slime, Alkali.
- Rulandus: A Transparent Material, Brilliant;
similar to those Pearls called Unio, or to the Onion, as it is composed
of many layers, and is of flaky nature. There are four species-white, yellow,
black, and red.
- Rulandus: Cocted Wine.
- Rulandus: is White like Gypsum, and is therefore called Spar-plaster,
Mortar, Magnesian Limestone, etc.
- Rulandus: A Mole, Rat.
- Rulandus: is Mercury.
- Rulandus: i.e., the Resin or Oil called Lentiscum.
- Rulandus: i.e., Oil of Juniper.
- Rulandus: Armenian Bolus, which see.
- Rulandus: i.e., Tartarum.
- Rulandus: is Calculus of Wine, called Wine-stone by similitude,
the stone, or deposit, which cleaves to the sides of vessels. Paracelsus
uses it for stone in the bladder or kidneys, or the albuminous deposit
in the other members which causes gout.
- Rulandus: is believed to be a word of Arabic origin, signifying
little sparkling Stars, and it is given by metallurgists to the stone which
is composed of layers or flakes, and which is always impervious to fire.
Some of these stones are white, dense, and fragile, like Selenite or Moonstone;
some have a green light, and are flexible, though very dense. Such are
found in the mines of Misnia. There are other species which seem to consist
of sparkling Scales, and can be dissolved in water. These are Catsilver
- Rulandus: i.e., A Worm in the Entrails.
- TEFRA or
- Rulandus: Ash.
- Rulandus: A Mufle [chemical term].
- TEGULA FORNICATA
- Rulandus: is an Earthen Vessel; vessel of oblong shape,
designed as a cover for other vessels to protect the matter, and through
which ventilation is also secured. There are several variations in the
details of its construction.
- Rulandus: As it were, a Dart of Fire.
- Rulandus: A Flux.
- TEMPERATURA PRIMA
- Rulandus: The First Degree of Heat.
- TEMPERATURA SECUNDA
- Rulandus: The Second Degree of Heat.
- TEMPERATURA TERTIA
- Rulandus: The Third Degree of Heat.
- Rulandus: is anything which softens the inherent nature
of a substance, and puts a curb thereon, by admitting another nature, as
Burnt Wine, Ardent Water, etc.
- TENACITAS GLUTINIS
- Rulandus: A Mineral Resin or Balsam, as that of
the Terebinth is a Tree Resin.
- Rulandus: A Plug of Lint that is put into wounds; a small Spiral
Cylinder of Scraped Linen, Rags for Moistening, a Cylinder of Split Lint.
- Rulandus: A Substance used by Cobblers. Cobblers' Wax.
- Rulandus: i.e., Composed by the Hand:
1. White, Slimy Earth, which contains Petrified Shells.
2. White, Soapy Earth, Fuller's Earth.
3. Very White Earth of Milos, celebrated by the ancients.
4. White Lemnian Earth or Stamped Earth. Ours is adulterated. The genuine
is from Lemnos.
5. Grey, Slimy Earth.
6. Greasy, Soft, Ash-like Julian Earth.
7. Ashy Ultramarine Earth of Eretria, used in Medicine.
8. Earth of Patavina, containing Lazuli; clods of it are found in fields.
When broken, there is a very white, soft, crumbling earth in the centre,
which soon changes colour under the influence of the air, and turns blue.
9. Grey Spanish Earth, out of which Melting Vessels are made.
10. Grey Irish, avoided by all venomous animals. There is said to be
a specimen in Suevia.
11. Very rare Giselan, Grey, of which Vessels are made, which exude
new Wine and other liquids.
12. Thick, Greyish Waldenberg, of which they made Vases, which do not
absorb moisture, and are used to hold Aquafortis.
13. Grey, Hard, and Crustaceous, of which they make Kettles, etc., in
14. Grey Anneberg, mixed with Potters' Rubrica.
15. Crumbling, Violet-brown, Juliacensis.
16. Manufactured Saponaceous, used for Washing Clothes.
17. Green Saponaceous of Thuringia, near Biehlingum.
18. Yellow, Slatey Earth.
19. Like Ochre, from which Lead is smelted, at Ilmena.
20. Tripoli Earth.
21. Alana, from the country of the Alani, now called Valachi.
22. Red, Sandy, Metallic, in Aldenberg; the slightest touch stains the
23. Hard, Red, in the Copper Mines of Islebia, and called Red, etc.
24. The same, Red and Crumbling.
25. Red, Soft, Scissile, Waldenberg, not unlike a vein of minium.
26. Red, Stony, Rodicensian, with which Marl is cut out.
27. Earth in which a species of Mined Cadmia is found.
28. Soft, Greasy, Dull red Juliacensian, with which Bolus is dug out.
29. Black Bituminous Earth.
30. Terra Ampelitis, used by doctors and vine dressers.
31. Pacodian Earth, also medicinal.
32. Crumbling, similar to Scales, and out of which Iron is Smelted.
33. Lemnian or Stamped, the most medically celebrated of all Earths.
34. Earth from which Tiles are made.
35. Nitrous Thuringian Earth, which in many places occurs on the surface
of the land.
36. Aluminous Misnensian, of various colours, but chiefly Ochrine and
37. Grey Aluminous Misnensian, which shines like Pyrites in a few instances.
38. Atramental or Cuprine Earth.
39. Sulphureous Earth.
40. Carbonaceous from the Belgian and Misnensian Turfs, which are used
in place of Coal. In Antwerp it is called Durff; in Misnensia, Dorpte;
it is useful in places where wood is scarce, and in some operations of
- Rulandus: i.e., Resin.
- Rulandus: The Fat of Manna, Wild Honey, approaching black,
a deposit from the Air, and not from bees; it is found upon grass, trees,
and herbs, and it is as sweet as true honey. It is found largely during
the summer months-June, July, August. The ancients call it Threr.
- Rulandus: The Herb Angelica.
- TERRA MELIA
- Rulandus: This is the Terra Melina of Pliny, a kind of
natural white colour, of which the best quality was found at Melos. Because
at the present day it is brought from Tripoli of Syria, it is called the
Stone of Tripoli. There is also an oil, an unguent, a species of quince,
and an herb, called Apiastrum, to which the term Melinus is applied. It
is found at Hildesheim in Saxony, and gives forth a smoke or vapour when
touched. It has little of the quality of a stone, for it is soft, crumbling,
and easily dissolved.
- TERRA AMPELITUS
- Rulandus: A kind of Resinous Earth, found at Seleucia
in Syria, and very similar to Bitumen. Pliny (1. 35, c. 16) tells us that
it was the custom to cover vines with it for the destruction of vermin,
and hence its name. It has affinity with coal, and uniform brilliance,
is dissolved by oil, and has a cooling and dispersing quality in medicine.
The black is commended by Pliny and Dioscorides, who disparage the grey
and white varieties, which do not dissolve in moisture. It is called by
the Germans Black Chalk.
- Rulandus: There are certain earths which are found in mines,
which from their colour seem a species of clay, but are distinguished therefrom
by their dryness. Some qualities are white, some black, some are like Pnigitis,
others like a slime, others again are ochrine in colour, others reddish,
purple, or like Sandarac. There are green, grey, and blue varieties. White
Earth bears various names, according to its specific nature and the place
where it is found. It seldom occurs in metallic mines, but is found in
mines of its own. There is, however, as it were, a marrow, or pith, of
rock which is found in mines, and is of white colour. It is called by the
Germans Lithomarge, and is like the marrow in the bones of animals. It
is not so moist as clay, nor of such a stick fatness or greasiness. It
is sometimes found hard and dry. It is found at Jena in Thuringia, and
Hercynia ; there it is white, crumbly, and hardened. It is used as a powder
by boys to dry blots in writing. There is a variety in Saxony which is
similar to Alabaster.
- TERRA LEMNIA
- Rulandus: Under the heading of Rubrics, we have already
made extended reference to this earth, which in fact is a species of Rubrica,
in colour similar to Minium. It is also the Sigillated Earth of Avicenna,
which was stamped by the priests of Diana with the image of Diana, and
was sacred to her. It was stamped also with the image of a goat, as we
have already said, and was sprinkled with goats' blood. Thus sprinkled,
as we may learn from Galen, it was supposed to possess the highest medicinal
qualities. Scarcely any true Lemnian Earth now reaches us because of the
jealousy of the Turks, to whom Lemnia is now subject. Cretan Earth is used
largely as a substitute. There is also an adulterated material from Italy
which is sold as an antidote to poison. The Emperor of the Turks holds
the mines of Lemnos, and sends some of it by his ambassadors with great
ceremony to our own Emperor as a protection against poison and plague.
It is supposed to abound especially at the base of that mountain in Lemnos
where Vulcan was said to have his forge. Nicander informs us that it is
a special antidote to lethal poisons. Galenus, Pliny, Serapion, Paulus
and Avicenna may all be consulted as to its nature and virtues. Platearius
calls it Aromatic Calx, Argent Earth, and Saracenic Earth. He also warns
his readers that it can be easily sophisticated. But every kind of pastille
which I have beheld is of a pallid quality because of its combination with
earth, and I have not seen any that correspond in appearance to Minium,
as Pliny affirms. It is a fitting thing that man, who was created by God
out of a red earth, should find in a red earth his best antidote for poison.
There is also the white and red Sigillated Earth of His Majesty the
Emperor, which is stamped with the impression of a scorpion, and is composed
by our own Lord, but must yield in the matter of its virtues to the Turkish
- TERRA ERE TRIADES
- Rulandus: Dioscorides enumerates two species, White
and Grey. It is Earth of Eretria in the island of Eubcea, and was used
in medicines and painting. The grey was considered to be the finer quality.
Its species, its qualities, its appearance, and the methods of its preparation
are described by Pliny (l. 35, c. 16). It is found in the potteries of
Saxony, and on the banks of such rivers as the Elbe.
- TERRA SAMIA
- Rulandus: was also duplex according to Dioscorides. It
is an Earth of that island of the Ionian Sea, which is very near Ionia,
and opposite Ephesus. This earth was very good, and very celebrated. It
had the highest healing qualities, and was equally excellent for the manufacture
of vases, which were made in great numbers at Samos. They were so hard
that they could be used for cutting other substances. The two species of
Saurian Earth were:
1. White, Light, adhering like a gluten to the tongue when touched by
it. Soft, Sappy, and Crumbling. Some call it Collyrion.
2. Hard, Crustaceous, very dense and close. We ourselves have a species
of Samian Earth which is obtained from potteries in the neighbourhood of
Hierichunt, not far from the Elbe.
- TERRA CHIA
- Rulandus: is White and Crustaceous; it is like Samian Earth,
both in appearance and quality, as Dioscorides and Pliny inform us. It
is exceedingly good for the skin, and may be used as a detergent substitute
for Nitre in baths. Women are supposed to be especially benefited by it.
This earth is found in many parts of Saxony, particularly in the mines
near the town of Belzick.
- TERRA SELINUSIA
- Rulandus: has the same nature as the two preceding
earths, especially the Brilliant, White, or Milky, and Crumbling species.
This is on the authority of Pliny and Dioscorides. It is used as a plaster
or whitewash for walls.
- TERRA CIMOLIA
- Rulandus: Of this there are two species, according to
One white, the other approaching transparency. The best
has an inherent greasiness, and is cold to the touch. It has a cooling,
restraining, and expelling quality. This earth was formerly well known
not only to doctors but to basketmakers and silver smelters. It is called
Argent Earth. Celsus praises it, and says it is of subcerulean colour.
Consult Serapion. Under the name of Tenchi rrzolea there seem to have been
several varieties of earths included, and the opinions concerning them
have varied. There is a Spanish variety which is black ; there is also
one of greenish colour, and some suppose it to have been that sandstone
on which swords were sharpened. But here, as elsewhere, when we have no
actual knowledge, we presume to speak nothing that is definite.
- TERRA RUBEA
- Rulandus: Armenian Bolus.
- TERRA AURI
- Rulandus: Gold Litharge.
- TERRA ARGENTI
- Rulandus: Silver Litharge.
- TERRA FIDELIS, TERRA COELESTIS, COELUM TERRESTRE
- Rulandus: i.e., Silver.
- TERRA HISPANICA
- Rulandus: i.e., Vitriol.
- TERRA FOETIDA
- Rulandus: i.e., Sulphur.
- TERRA CLIVULI
- Rulandus: i.e., Step cut in the Rock.
- TERRA FERRUGINEA
- Rulandus: Earth containing Iron.
- TERRA FERE LUTEA
- Rulandus: Slimy Earth.
- TERRA SIGILLATA
- Rulandus: Red-coloured Earth.
- TERRA FIGULA
- Rulandus: Potters' Earth.
- TERRA RUBEA
- Rulandus: i.e., Orpiment.
- TERRA FOLIATA
- Rulandus: Leaves, Mecurial Water, wherein Gold is sown.
Mirerius says that it is Mercury which collects in the Aludel, in order
that water may be again poured upon it. Therefore, says Hermes, sow thy
Gold in Terra Foliata. It is the spiritual water. The white Terra Foliata
is the crown of victory spiritual water extracted from ashes of other bodies.
- Rulandus: Bloom (metallurgic term).
- Rulandus: any Baked Earthen Vessel.
- Rulandus: Sea Spume, Meerschaum.
- Rulandus: A Slug or Snail.
- Rulandus: An Art by which those Machines are Invented which
are driven by Air or Water-power.
- Rulandus: A Cleansed and Purged Medicine, a Preparation of
- Rulandus: Copper.
- Rulandus: Gold.
- Rulandus: Poison, Ferment, Matter of the Stone.
- Rulandus: The Vessel by which we make a Descending Distillation.
- Rulandus: The Bearing or Direction of the Vein.
- Rulandus: North-west.
- Rulandus: Calamine.
- Rulandus: Living Sulphur.
- Rulandus: A Stone which takes its name from mortars, now unknown.
Dioscorides says that it is of semi-green colour, and comes from Ethiopia.
He cites little from other authors about it. Some say that it is the Stone
Lyncis, which see.
- Rulandus: Quicksilver.
- TIGILLA RUDIA INFIMIE PUTEI PARTI SUPER IMPOSITA
- Rulandus: A Pent House,
or Roof in a Pit.
- Rulandus: Lining Timbering.
- TIGILLA TERETIA
- Rulandus: Stakes over props of platforms.
- TIGILLA TRANSVERSARIA
- Rulandus: Grain of the Wood.
- TIGILLA TRANSVERSORIA
- Rulandus: A Cross-beam.
- TIGILLA ALLIIS TIGILLIS IN TERRA DEFOSSIS IMMISSA
- Rulandus: Pile-driving,
Stakes set one over the other in the Earth.
- Rulandus: A Drawing Cage [mining term].
- TIGNA IN FRONTE ET TERGO PUTEI COLLOCATA
- Rulandus: A Windlass Tree,
used for Wells.
- TIGNA IN TERRA DEFOSSA
- Rulandus: Seats for Workmen.
- TIGNA LONGISSIMA
- Rulandus: A Stringing Plank.
- TIGNA OBLIQUE DESCENDENTIA
- Rulandus: Tiebands, Stripe, Hoop.
- TIGNA STATUTA
- Rulandus: Baluster.
- TIGNORUM SPECIES
- Rulandus: Struts.
- Rulandus: A Column.
- TIGNUM CUJUS FORAMEN PENETRAT AXICULUS DUPLEX
- Rulandus: A Swipe, Swape,
or Drawing Beam.
- TIGNUM MOBILE
- Rulandus: A movable Column.
- TIGNA PER INTERVALLA LOCATA
- Rulandus: Props for supporting the perpendicular
beams in mines.
- TIGNA HUMI STRATA
- Rulandus: Stakes Set in the Ground.
- TIGNUM BREVE
- Rulandus: A kind of Wedge.
- TIN, TIFATUM
- Rulandus: Sulphur.
- Rulandus: i.e., Band of Gold, i.e., Borax.
- Rulandus: To Tinge is to Change the Nature.
- Rulandus: Tinging and Transmuting.
- Rulandus: is the Green of the Ore, or Water made out of Salt.
- Rulandus: Iron Plates.
- Rulandus: That which Penetrates and Permeates Bodies with
its Colour, as Saffron does Water.
- Rulandus: Tincture is a Specific Arcanum, having a certain
essence, qualities, and forms, and also a colour, which it can impart,
and so, as it were, infuse its own appearance into a substance. If this
Tincture be properly developed, it will have the consistency and perspicuity
of a most tenuous nature, just as the air is perspicuous, pure, and coloured
in a certain way, transparency not interfering with the possession of colour.
So also it can exist a long time without depositing a sediment. When so
developed, it will impart an unchanging and persisting quality to a thing
in proportion to its capacity for receiving it. And so in medicine, it
conduces, above all, to the restoration of health, and the confirmation
and strengthening thereof. By its high potency, it may be fitly said to
be a renovator, acting upon every member, the blood, the spirit, and the
Tincture is of two kinds
- Rulandus: open and brought out. The first spontaneously
manifests on the surface, and frequently takes place in metals.
That which is brought out is produced from the centre to the surface,
and is extracted. There is in many substances a latent virtue or colour,
which is called potential, and is to be developed by processes of exaltation,
before it is extracted. Most noble are the tinctures of metals, and there
are those also which are found in the investigation of vegetable natures.
- Rulandus: i.e., Water of Barley.
- Rulandus: Unknown.
- Rulandus: i.e., Calx from Gypsum.
2. A Dark Topaz.
- Rulandus: A Gem, first found in the Arabian Island of Chitus,
when certain pirates, pressed by hunger and driven by tempest, dug up herbs
and roots therein. Or it is named after the cloudy island of the Red Sea,
which navigators gators sought so often, and which they therefore called
Topazion, which signifies to seek in the tongue of the Troglodytes. From
this island, on the testimony of Pliny, was the Topaz first brought by
the Egyptian queen, Berenice. But some say that it was found originally
in the Thebaid. A pallid species exists in Hungary. There are also certain
fluors in our mines, of a mud-colour, which are not unlike Topaz. Pliny
distinguishes two species of Topaz: the Prazoin and the Chrysepteron, like
to the Chrysopras. Albertus, Evax, and others, speak of a Golden variety,
which even exceeds Gold in the depth of its colour. It is said to check
lust, and to make men chaste and full of life.
- TOPHI ET PUMICES
1. Grey-white Pumice Stone.
2. Theophus, which is rarer.
3. Thuringian, which is found in the Helba, and is thrown up abundantly
on the banks. It is used as a cement for walls, and is of grey colour.
4. Stones which are found in the beds of thermal springs, similar to
5. Stones found in channels of aqueducts, more solid than Thophis.
6. A kind of Stalactite Stone.
7. White Misnian Rabschicius, from which calx is burnt.
8. White, fistulous Stone of Misenus.
9. The same, but like grapes on the surface.
10. White Crustaceous Misenian.
11. White Misenian, full of shells.
12. White Misenian, with impressions of oak and alder leaves.
13. Very hard, chestnut-coloured, from the warm springs of the Carolines.
14. Yellow, also from the channels of warm springs.
15. The same, but found pendent like stalactite.
16. A deposit on everything that is left in water.
17. Yellow-coloured, pallid, globular Stones from the thermal springs
of the Carolines.
18. Smooth, yellow, and so perfectly round that they would seem to have
been made by art.
21. Chestnut brown.
23. Yellow, with a smooth surface.
24. Like pulse in size, shape, and colour; found in the springs of the
25. Very like Coriander Seed.
- Rulandus: A Roaster.
- Rulandus: is an Erudition of Resin from the Pine Tree.
- Rulandus: is every Metal in its own Ore.
- TRAHE SIVE CAPSA
- Rulandus: A Sledge.
- TRAHA CUI IMPOSITA EST CAPSA
- Rulandus: A kind of Truck.
- Rulandus: If in descending distillation an essence drawn
forth should sweat out, it is received by drops into a proper vessel. The
focus is above, round the ergastulum, whence it is said to be acted on
by a circular fire. It is performed in a descending furnace, with a descending
- Rulandus: Cross-wise.
- Rulandus: The Acts of Shades and Spectres who are invisible,
but can nevertheless be heard.
- TRICA or
- Rulandus: Good.
- Rulandus: Gold.
- Rulandus: Spirits Inhabiting the Element of Fire.
- Rulandus: i.e., Tartarum Trigia, i.e., Refuse.
- Rulandus: is the Fourfold Transmutation of Astral Spirits,
according to the number of the four elements ; each reigns for two hundred
years. When an igneous trigonum begins for a superior planet its conjunction
takes place in a fiery sign, so long as this igneous trigonum endures,
and so for the rest.
- Rulandus: An Iron Vessel for the reception of a Matter when
- Rulandus: A Three-legged Stool.
- Rulandus: The ordinary Funnel, a Transmitting Vessel, broad
at the top, and having a handle attached to it.
- Rulandus: A Pulley.
- Rulandus: Celestial Dew, born of Air, very
sweet, thick, tenacious, good smelling, generated in whiteness out of the
Mercury of a middle region, separated from all Salt and Sulphur; it falls
in spring and summer, and is found sticking to the leaves of trees.
- Rulandus: A Trowel.
- Rulandus: That Mineral Virtue which brings every Metal to its
own stage of development.
- Rulandus: is the Scale or part given off in hammering from any
metal on the anvil.
- Rulandus: Little Tubes.
- TUMBABA, TIMPABAR, CAPAPIUM, THION
- Rulandus: Names of Living Sulphur.
- Rulandus: i.e., Rubel. ? Red, or a kind of Vine.
- Rulandus: i.e., Earth.
- TURBA MAGNA
- Rulandus: is the Innumerable Multitude of the Stars of
the Firmament of Heaven; a Presage of all those things which are done in
the worlds of the four elements.
- TURBITH MINERALS
- Rulandus: is Mercury without any Corrosive, precipitated
in a sweet state.
- Rulandus: is a Specific Fixed Coagulate, whence all impurities
have been extracted; also whatever is endowed with an unconquerable volatility;
it is found separated in the bottom of the vessel, and is obtained chiefly
from minerals. The term appears to be of Arabic origin, and signified either
the Cortex or Bark of the herb Fennel-green or Southern-wood, or else the
Root thereof. It was afterwards applied to Medicine prepared from herbs
of the genus Tithymalus, which includes Spurge or Sea-lettuce. But in the
present connection, the term is applied not in things vegetable, but in
the mineral kingdom.
- Rulandus: Armenian Salt.
- Rulandus: Calamine, Katimia.
- Rulandus: A Basket.
- TYMPANUM QUOD EX FUSIS CONSTAT
- Rulandus: Machine-work, Motive-power,