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- PALANTINA ET PERSINA
- Rulandus: Were Queens like. Melusine and Melora.
- PALOS IN TIGNA IMMITTERE
- Rulandus: To Support Beams by Cross-pieces.
- Rulandus: A Stanchion.
- PANES AERIS FATHISCENTES
- Rulandus: Cake, Carcase.
- PANES EX PYRITE VEL CADMIA CONFLATI
- Rulandus: Stones made of Pyrites
- PANIS ARGENTEUS
- Rulandus: Silver Plate.
- Rulandus: A Mole or Birthmark.
- PANUM AEREORUM SPECIES
- Rulandus: Matte of Copper.
- PANUM EX AERE FOSSILI SPECIES
- Rulandus: Troughstone.
- PANDALITIUM, PANERITIUM, PASSA, VERMIS
- Rulandus: An Abscess at the
End of the Fingers.
- PARS CUM PARTE
- Rulandus: A Composition of Equal Parts of Gold and Silver.
- Rulandus: is Roman Camomile. Some say it is Persicaria.
- PARTES FODINAE VEL CUNILI
- Rulandus: A Share in a Mine.
- PARTES FODINARUM VEL CUNICULI
- Rulandus: Shares in a Mine.
- PARTICULAE EMINENTES
- Rulandus: Trunion, Gudgeon, or Stud.
- Rulandus: Wall.
- PASSUS METALLICUS
- Rulandus: A Metallic Foot.
- Rulandus: i.e., Sulphur.
- PATER ANTE FILIUM
- Rulandus: i.e., Patricide, i.e., Satyrion, the Herb
- PATER ET MATER REGIS
- Rulandus: The Father and Mother of the King. The
old philosophers have had such wonder and admiration for the Stone, and
so greatly rejoiced therein, that they have not known how to describe it
sufficiently, or how to glory in it or praise it. They have called it the
Microcosm, the Element, Heaven, Earth, Stars. Unto all things have they
compared it. Also they have called it the State of Marriage and the Birth
of Children, as the old proverb runs.
The Sun is its Father
- Rulandus: Noha, Coelum.
The Moon is its Mother
- Rulandus: Aretia, Nohae, Woman, Vesta.
The Wind carries him in its Bosom
- Rulandus: Air, Spirit.
The Earth nourishes him, etc.
Then the Sun is, with its warmth and power, the Father of all Vegetation;
the Moon, with its moisture, is the Mother; the Air must embrace and carry
all things; and the Earth must nourish.
But there is something peculiar in this operation, for the Metallic
Sun is a true Father, and gives the masculine seed. The Moon is a true
Mother, and gives the feminine seed. The Wind and Air must raise it and
conduct it, as Hermes says. Our Mercury rises in the glass; the Earth lies
beneath and comprehends in itself soul and spirit, so that a perfect child
and king may be born.
The father is our sulphur, the mother is our Mercury, which carries
the sulphur within it. For the woman shall have a ruddy-coloured child.
When it is born, the red again becomes visible, and the woman becomes changed
into a red man. She becomes an androgyne. The man, says Senior, is without
wings, is taken up and down. When it is coagulated, the moon is dark; therefore
he is called a shade. The wife is bright, is called a ray, and shining
of the sun; she draws the shadow out of the brilliance, which is coagulated.
The husband is called Lead, Mars. The wife is called Venus and Arsenic.
The husband is also the wife, and the wife is also the husband, like Eve.
The sleeping man lost his ribs. However, he is not glorified, because he
does not die. After death, in the resurrection is he glorified. So also
is it the case with our Adam. Even in his first sleep Eve is given him.
Afterwards, in the second solution he dies, and he arises gloriously. Then
Eve can never moree be torn from him (S. Ternesius). The father is the
calcination ; the mother is the solution ; the fountain is its mother.
And he is yet older than the fountain, because he is born perfect. For
that which is perfect is before that which is imperfect. But there is in
Mercury that which is desired by Philosophers.
- Rulandus: Scaly, a Scale, Metallic Shavings.
- Rulandus: Tartar.
- Rulandus: Mercury.
- Rulandus: Lime from the extremely White Ears of Marine Fish.
- Rulandus: is a Circulating Vessel, in
the shape of a Pelican pecking its own breast with its beak, and thus feeding
its young. It has a full body, which narrows towards the neck, and the
neck bends round and the mouth goes back into the body. This vessel has
a channel at the bottom, by which the liquor is poured in, and then the
entrance is hermetically sealed.
- Rulandus: is Boiled Honey.
- Rulandus: are Secret or Interior Spirits of the Element of
Fire, or of Heaven, born with us. They are also called Penuarii, Lares
Hercii, Ephestii, Etesii, and Meilichii.
- Rulandus: i.e., Submersion.
- Rulandus: Called also Periamata, Periapta, Apotroptea, Parartemata,
is an Amulet which is worn round the neck, and is supposed to preserve
the wearer against evil spirits and sorcery.
- Rulandus: Wine seasoned with Herbs.
- Rulandus: Small Yellow Carrots or similar Vegetable.
- Rulandus: The Muscle of Life; the Pulse.
- Rulandus: Water, Fishing, or Jack Boots.
- Rulandus: To Purify by Burning.
- Rulandus: A Bar.
- Rulandus: Measuring Rods.
- PES METALLICUS
- Rulandus: A Measure of One Foot.
- PES LUCUSTE
- Rulandus: i.e., Jamen Alum.
- PETRA SANGUINARIA
- Rulandus: Hematite; Bloodstone.
- Rulandus: The Herb Angelica.
- Rulandus: i.e., Iron.
- Rulandus: are Apparitions which haunt desert places and
the seashore, and speak with imaginative people. They are not diabolical,
though they frequently cause terror. They are born of imagination.
- Rulandus: A Glass Vessel used frequently in coagulations and
solutions. It has a globular body and a long slender neck or funnel.
- Rulandus: i.e., Violent; Rapacious; a Robber.
- Rulandus: A Species of Flux caused by the Coostrum (unknown).
- Rulandus: The Quintessence of Fire, or the Illustrious Philosophic
- Rulandus: Things naturally hostile to one another, as the
stork to the frog, cats to mice, spiders to flies.
- PHRASIUM VIRIDE
- Rulandus: i.e., Flower of Copper.
- Rulandus: Atrophy; Consumption; the plague which parches up,
cessation of nourishment, arising through fear or from excessive appetite.
- Rulandus: is the Art by which a Man's Nature is judged
from his Bodily Appearance.
- Rulandus: Post or Pillar.
- Rulandus: Brazen Vessels wherein Things are well pounded.
- Rulandus: White Hairs round the Tail and Neck of the Hare.
- Rulandus: A Mouse's Ear.
- Rulandus: i.e., Clay, Slag, or “Fired Hearth"
- Rulandus: i.e., any Fatty Substance.
- Rulandus: Pump-handle.
- Rulandus: Mllllet.
- PILUM EXCOCTORUM
- Rulandus: Bat Beater.
- Rulandus: A Beam.
- PILUM DENTIBUS CARENS
- Rulandus: A Smooth Pole.
- PILUM, VEL CAPUT PILI
- Rulandus: The Top of the Instrument with which
Copper is pounded. Also Broken Pieces of Copper or Brass.
- Rulandus: A Kind of Copper-stone.
- Rulandus: To Strain anything through a Colander, to Filter.
- Rulandus: i.e., to Beat, Crush, Pound.
- Rulandus: Pestle, Mallet.
- PIX LIQUINA
- Rulandus: Terebinth.
- Rulandus: Pitch.
- PLANITIES MONTIS
- Rulandus: The Hauling Gallery driven for the Dip of
- PLUMBUM, AFFROB
- Rulandus: Our Brass, is the Husband, and Impure Bodies.
- PLUMBUM ALKALI
- Rulandus: The Hermaphrodite.
- Rulandus: Is attributed to Saturn by chemists
and is so called. It is a Livid, Terrene, Heavy, Metallic Body, with very
little Whiteness and much of Earthy Nature. It is converted into Tin by
cleansing. Thus Tin is more perfect than Lead. And Lead has more of the
substance of Fixed Sulphur in its composition than Jupiter, i.e., Tin.
Lead is an Impure Body, procreated from the copulation of Imperfect Living
Silver, which is impure, unfixed, terrene, feculent, somewhat white on
the exterior, but red inside, with a similar quality of Sulphur. It is
wanting in purity, fixation, colour, and fire. In sum, Living Silver, which
is of bad quality, gross, of bad taste, fetid, and of feeble power, like
a menstruous mother, unites with a livid or leprous Sulphur, and frigid
Saturn for a son is the result, and this is Lead. Note that pure solid
Lead is not obtained from the mines. I have never read, heard, or seen
that it has been so found. Three qualities of Lead are excocted
(which is true Lead), grey, and white. Black Lead is excocted from Galena,
or Lead Ore, or from Pyrites. As to its cleansing and burning, and its
medicinal uses, consult Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 48). Purified Lead is still
used medicinally for inflamed ulcers and cancers. True burnt Lead is more
efficacious than washed or purified Lead. And potters use it to colour
their vessels. Scoria or recrement of Lead is the same as burnt bead, and
it abounds in the workshops of Misnia where Lead Ore is smelted.
- PLUMBUM CINEREUM
- Rulandus: Grey Lead is the German Bismuth. It differs
from the black and white species, and is, as it were, a metal by itself.
It is more noble than Lead, but inferior to Silver, and has a middle position
between both. The Ore from which it is excocted is like that of Black Lead,
with this difference, that unless it is solid, it blackens the hand. When
solid, it is not brittle, like Galena. It is blacker than the variety of
rude Silver which we term lead-coloured. It often contains Silver, and
where it is found there is generally Silver lower down, for which reason
it is called the Roof of Silver. Many articles are now made from it, even
as from Silver, such as drinking-cups, vases, etc. A species of blue is
also obtained from it. The Arabs and many chemists were ignorant of this
As Black Lead is called Lead simply by the Germans, or Black Lead, so
White Lead is called Ceruse or Tin. But it is an error to term our White
Lead Tin, for they are distinct things. White Lead is more pure and perfect
than Black. Pliny calls it Cassiterion, from the Cassiterides Islands,
where it was first found by Midacrytus. Like Black Lead, it is now melted
out of Pyrites or out of Galena, Gravel or Coarse Sand, as well as out
of those Black Pebbles which are mentioned by Pliny, who also says that
White Lead is found in Britain, Galicia, and Lusitania. Caesar, De Bello
Gallico, 1. 5, also affirms its existence in Britain.
- PLUMBUM NIGRUM
- Rulandus: Black Lead.
1. Native Black Lead in a black ore, but impure.
2. Black Lead in a vein of white ore like Opaque White Floors.
3. Black Lead in a white vein like Clear White Fluors. There is sixty
percent of the metal.
4. Caldebornian Black Lead, like Grey Marl.
5. Like a white Sandy Stone.
6. Like a Metallic Flint, with veins of Living Sulphur.
7. From Polonia, mixed with Native Ochre.
8. Flowers of Black Lead, like White Corals.
9. Yellow, full of lines of Slimy Sulphur, hence called Lead Sulphur.
10. Smelted Black Lead from Villacense.
11. Very soft Palatine Black Lead.
12. Refined soft Lead.
13. Containing much Silver.
14. Raw Lead containing Gold.
15. Raw Lead containing Silver.
16. Raw Lead, mixed with Silver, Copper and Gold.
17. Purified Lead, which is used for testing purposes.
18. Hard Lead, composed of Spume of Silver and Lead Ore.
19. Lead smelted from Spume of Silver.
20. Added as a flux to metals in excoction.
21. Granulated Lead.
22. Reduced to the finest powder or granules, and so used by the Venetians.
23. Common Lead Ochre.
24. Best English Lead Ochre.
26. Native Ceruse from Vincentinus.
27. Minium made from burnt ceruse.
28. Minium imperfectly burnt.
29. Minium obtained from a Lead Stone rich in Silver.
30. Recrement or Scum extracted from Lead.
31. White Tapping or Recrement of Gossarian Black Lead.
32. Impure White Tapping of Lead.
33. Lead reduced to ash by the power of fire.
34. Alchemistic Lead Pigment-Lead Ash of the chemists.
35. A poisonous, slimy Lead Smoke, generated in smelting lead from silver.
36. Cleansed or Washed Lead of Dioscorides.
37. Burnt Lead of Dioscorides.
- PLUMBUM CANDIDUM:
1. Purest White Lead from the valley of Joachim.
2. Small White Granules obtained at the same place by washing.
3. Filaments of White Lead, collected in rivers.
4. Purest Native White Lead, mined at Slacchenvald.
5. Lead Crystals of Aldenberg, like Clear White Fluors.
6. Yellow Crystals, like Living Sulphur in Hegnist Metal.
8. Red-yellow Lead Crystal.
10. Green Lead Crystals, found in the waters near Schreckenberg.
11. White Lead Crystals collected in rivers.
12. White, found on the riverbanks near Schneberg.
13. Minute Black Lead Crystals deposited by the rivers.
14. Small Black Stones containing Lead.
15. Moderate-sized Black Stones containing Lead.
16. Large Black Stones containing Lead.
17. A Black Pebble, pure and unique. A very Rich Calcareous Sheolite.
18. Black and Yellow Pebbles, combined, from Hegnist.
19. Small Black Stones, combined with Thin Plates of the Finest White
Lead, in a Yellow Fluor.
20. Black Stones of Slacchenvald, in a White Metallic Stone.
21. Black Stones in a Grey Metallic Stone.
22. Moderate-sized Black Stones in a Metallic Marble.
23. In a White Sexangular Pellucid Fluor.
24. Bohemian, in a Ruddy Cuprine Stone.
25. In an Iron Stone.
26. In White Pellucid Mirror Stone of Slacchenvald.
27. With Pyrites.
28. Of a Greyish Black Colour.
29. Stone of White Lead in a Metallic Flint.
30. A Vein of White Lead, combined with Metallic Cadmia.
31. A Mined Substance similar to Mica Silver.
32. Best and Purest English White Lead.
33. Purest Cooked White Slacchenvald Lead.
34. Adulterated Lead, to which Black Lead is added.
35. Lead containing Silver.
38. Reduced to Powder.
39. Soft Cancellate Lead.
40. Lead formed in Hard Blocks.
41. Smelted out of Recrements.
42. Ceruse from White Lead.
43. Small Black Sterile Stones, similar in form and colour to Black
Aerolites. When melted with White Lead Stones, that which remains becomes
hard, and is marked with spots.
44. Anneberg Lead Stones; when struck with a hammer, they appear like
clay. They are not suitable for combination, because they contain stony
45. White Lead, Cooked, and to which Grey Lead is added.
46. Recrement of White Lead.
- PLUMBUM CINEREUM
- Rulandus: Grey Lead.
1. This is called Bismuth by our Metallurgists, and it is also usually
termed the Roof of Silver, Silver being generally found beneath.
2. White Flower of Grey Lead.
5. Pure Native Grey Lead, which is Solidified into Stone in the Mountains
by Internal Heat, and takes the form of Indian Salt.
6. Aldeburg Lead in a Hard Grey Stone.
7. Crustaceous Lead from the Valley of Joachim.
8. Glebous Lead of Schneberg in a Black Friable Stone.
9. In a White Stone.
10. In a very Hard White Flint.
11. Tessellated in a Grey Stone.
12. Veins of Roasted Grey Lead, from which, by the potency of fire,
granules like unto the Purest Silver are extracted.
13. Excocted Grey Lead.
14. Impure Blocks from Grey Lead.
15. Pure Blocks of Grey Lead.
16. Scarce Excocted Grey Lead.
17. Veins of Burnt Grey Lead, or Saffron-coloured Lead, used by Potters
18. Recrement of Grey Lead, of a Saffron Colour.
- PLUMBUM IN GLOBULOS REDUCTUM
- Rulandus: Lead reduced into Granules.
- PLUMBUM DIVES
- Rulandus: Rich Lead.
- PLUMBUM IGNIS VI IN CINEREM RESOLUTUM
- Rulandus: Lead reduced to Ashes
by the power of Fire.
- PLUMBUM DEPAUPERATUM
- Rulandus:Uncalcined Lead.
- PLUMBI ARTIS IMPURA
- Rulandus: Untranslatable. According to the German
version, Black Lead of an Impure Kind.
- PLUMBAGO, GALENAand
- BLACK LEAD
- Rulandus: are one and the same.
We prove this statement in the following manner. First, Black Lead and
Silver are prepared from our mined Plumbago, out of Glance and Lead Oil,
at Friburg and Misnia, at Goslaria, and many other places, just as Pliny
(1. 34, c. 18), treating of Molybdena and Galena, says. Therefore our Plumbago,
our Glance, is Galena and Black Lead. Secondly, the mention of the word
proves it to be one and the same; for what Pliny (1. 33, c. 6) or the Spaniards
call Galena we now call Glance. But Marcellus, the interpreter of Dioscorides,
a man on other points leaned enough, asserts that it is not called Galena,
for Pliny denies that Black Lead is made in Galicia. It is nevertheless
made from Galena. Thirdly, our Plumbago is chiefly of the colour of Lead,
and for this reason is called by the Greeks Molybdena, and by the Romans
Plumbago, or the Stone whence Lead is made. Thus it may either be called
the Lead Stone, a vein of Lead Ore, or Lead Earth. Fourthly, Pliny says
nothing about the stone Molybdos, of which, nevertheless, Dioscorides wrote,
and was contented with the name of Galena. Then the Galena and the Molybdos
of Dioscorides are one and the same. Fiftly, Galen says that he has himself
seen a kind of Native Molybdena lying along the banks of rivers; nor does
he make mention of the Lead Stone, because he considered them one and the
same. Therefore Molybdena and Lead Stone are the same. In the sixth place,
Galen states, in his book concerning the composition of medicines, that
out of Ceruse and White Litharge, and from Grey Molybdena, which is of
an ashen colour, Hydrelagon is made, and this is our Galena, not indeed
the yellow but the leaden. Therefore Galena and Molybdena are one and the
same. Seventhly, according to Dioscorides, our Galena, which is of the
colour of Lead, is called the Leaden Stone, because it is a species of
Lead, and contains the matter of Lead in itself. Moreover, it has the same
properties as Washed Lead and Lead Scoria. It is washed in the same manner.
It differs from the Native Molybdena of Dioscorides in colour alone, not
in matter, for he writes that his mined Yellow Molybdena is brilliant,
but the colour can easily be changed in the case of Plumbago by means of
different gases stirred up from the bowelss of the earth. Thus, with us,
in our mines, Black, Blue, and Liver-coloured Galena are all found. Just
as Yellow Galena can be certainly found in warm regions, also there is
found a Galena in our mines which is covered with a yellow colour, possibly
the Molybdena of Dioscorides, and this yellow with which the Galena is
tinged is sometimes found in veins, and is sometimes tempered by the heat
of the earth. It sparkles, especially when split up, so that it seems to
contain a metal. The Arabs know nothing about Molybdena, or think it to
be the same as Litharge. They are indeed the same in temperament. Molybdena,
however, is slightly colder. Its parts are denser. It does not possess
the power of cleansing. Serapion has little or nothing about the virtue
of Molybdena. (See lib. Agg., s.v. Hasas.) If indeed you wish to
have any difference or distinction, call Molybdena the Lead Stone when
it contains Lead alone. On the contrary, when it contains Lead and Silver,
call it Galena. Whereas, therefore, Molybdena, Plumbago, and Galena are
one and the same, note that Galena or Molybdena is twofold, native and
The native is again double, i.e., I. Fruitful, which is a Vein of Lead
alone, and then it is called Lead Stone by Pliny and Galen. Pliny (1. 33,
c. 6) calls Galena a Vein of Lead, found near Veins of Silver. Next, because
the Vein contains both Silver and Black Lead, we smelt lead and silver
from it, and then it is truly Galena. This fruitful Galena is again twofold-as
respects colour, not substance. They are of the same matter, though the
1. A kind of Brilliant Lead, and this is our Plumbago, Galena, or Molybdena
of Pliny. By Dioscorides, however, it is called the Lead-like Stone.
2. A Yellow Lead also Brilliant, described by Dioscorides. It is found
at Sebastia and Coricum.
It is also mentioned by Pliny, who says that Molybdena or Galena is
better when it is of a more golden colour, when it is less leaden and brittle,
and is slightly heavier. In warm regions it is possibly given this colour
by parched gases from the bowels of the earth. For if you rightly consider
our Plumbago, as to its colour, and how it received that colour in the
bowels of the earth, you will find that Plumbago has received the following
colours in our mines, owing to different vapours:
4. Covered with a Yellow Colour
- Rulandus: possibly that of Dioscorides. By
the Germans all these species are called simply Lead Ore, or Glance, on
account of their brilliance.
II. Sterile Plumbago is of no account. Its colour is not unlike the
fruitful species, but it is altogether barren, and is wholly consumed by
Manufactured Plumbago, made in furnaces of Gold and Silver. It is called
Metallic by Pliny (1. 34, c. 18). It is called by the Germans Graphite,
or Compressed Galena. By some it is called Silver Litharge, because of
its affinity with Scoria of Silver. This is not its proper name. Pliny
also regards it as a species of Silver Litharge. Dioscorides states that
manufactured Plumbago competes with Silver Litharge. Emplastrum is made
from it as from native Galena. Note that this metallic substance liquefies
when treated by fire. Moreover, when cooked in oil it assumes a liver colour,
which is not the case with the native, as Pliny affirms, who in this place
misinterprets Dioscorides. Native Plumbago, cooked in oil, has the colour
of the liver. Note, finally, that Sylvaticus in his Pandectis calls Molybdena
Burnt Lead, and the Refuse of Lead. Truly there is an agreement here! This
Molybdena, or Black Lead, is by no means Lead, or the refuse, or the scoria,
of Lead, but it is the residuum, so to speak, of Plumbago, which contains
Silver and Lead, and which adheres to furnaces, and Pliny notwithstanding,
again becomes cooked Lead. Sylvaticus, however, errs in this passage; concerning
the properties and the methods of washing and burning it, consult Dioscorides
and Pliny, as also concerning its excoction (1, 34, c. 16), where the latter
says that the source of Black Lead is twofold, for it exists either in
a vein of its own, or else in combination with Silver. It is melted from
mixed veins. The first liquid that begins to flow in the furnace is Tin;
the second, Silver ; that which remains in the furnace is called Galena,
which is the third portion added to the vein. This, again smelted, yields
Metallic or Native Plumbago, in Spanish Galena, i.e., a Vein of Lead
and Silver indifferently.
2. Simple Plumbago, Pure Glance.
3. Rich Plumbago, containing Cobalt and Arsenic.
4. Mixed with White Pyrites.
5. Cubical Glance in White Lime-stone.
6. Tessellated, in Long, White, and Pellucid. Fluors.
7. Intermixed with Yellow Fluors in a White Stone, which Melts in Fire.
8. With White Pyrites in a White Flint.
9. Quadrangular, in Purple Fluors.
10. Octagonal in another Barren Plumbago, or a Sulphuret of Zinc.
11. Polish Plumbago, containing Yellow Ochre.
12. Cloddy, in alternate layers, with a Grey Crustaceous Pyrites.
13. Mixed with Flint.
14. With Yellow Transparent Fluors.
15. Tessellated in White Fluors.
16. Of a Red Colour, whence Lead is abundantly smelted.
17. Black Glance, so dyed by a Vein of Copper.
18. Of a Liver Colour, which is derived from other Metals. When the
external colour is rubbed off, its proper colour remains.
19. Of a Yellow Colour, like Muddy Fluors.
20. Of a Red or Rusty Colour, like a Solid or Refined Copper.
21. Cloddy, from Friberg Glance, containing Cobalt and Arsenic.
22. Like Copper Glance.
23. From Islebia, in a Slate Stone.
24. Rich in Gold and Lead.
25. Abundant in Copper and Lead.
26. From Friberg, dyed various colours, a kind of Glance.
1. Resembling Barren Pitch.
2. Containing Cobalt and Arsenic.
3. Yellow and Brilliant, from Schurfenberg, near Meissen. A Light Yellow
4. A variety of the preceding.
5. Sterile, resembling Galena.
- Rulandus: is a certain kind of earth, which Dioscorides says
resembles Eretrian Earth in colour, for which also it is sold. It has,
however, a larger clod, and is cold to the hand. We ourselves have a black
earth, which is not Pnigitis, but it is very black. This earth sometimes
contains Silver. It is then called Coarse Silver. Sometimes it is barren,
and then it is called Black Earth, and is indeed the same as Dioscorides
calls Melanteria. It is of a sulphureous hue, becoming black on contact
with water. True Pnigitis is not found in our land. In the torrent of Garmendorf,
as it passes to meet the Saale, a Black Friable Stone is met with, whence
boys' ink is made. It seems to be Pnigitis hardened by heat, of great size,
but light in proportion to the size. Or it is simply Ochre, which, being
burnt by the heat of the sun or of the earth, turns into Rubrica, or Ruddle.
It may be a kind of Ampelis. It can be reduced into an extremely delicate
and well-digested soft powder. It is an extremely beautiful substance,
although it may be despised by the inhabitants of those regions.
- Rulandus: A Large Cask.
- Rulandus: Gum.
- Rulandus: Concerning this substance and the varieties of
the same, see Dioscorides, who seems to confound Pompholix, Spodon, and
Antispodon. In the first place, Pompholix is the same as that which is
called white nothing or nil by vendors of medicines. Hence the proverb
that nothing is good for the eyes. They also call it White Pompholigum,
which is coarser. On the other hand, Spodicem is what the chemists call
Black Poncplcolix. Avicenna, if I rightly remember, calls it Succudus,
i.e., full of sap. Thirdly, Antispodiusc, which takes the place of Spodium
in use, is produced from the leaves, flowers, and immature berries of the
Astringent Myrtle, or from a branch of Olive Wood as Dioscorides and Pliny
tell us. Note that neither Spodon nor Antispodon are found nowadays; we
do not actually know what they are, or how made. To deal with the substances
themselves: Pompholix is a Metallic Ash, which is produced upon the tops
or walls of furnaces, or of huts where there are extinguished furnaces.
This Ash varies with the metals and the place of production. Grey Pompholix
is obtained from Pyrites rather than from Lead Stone. Hence that of Goslar
is better than any from Meissen, and contains Silver, Lead, and Copper.
So also Dioscorides says that the best quality comes from Cyprus. That
which adheres to the tops and walls of furnaces is Spodion. On the other
hand, that which hangs from the top is Pompholix, differing from the first
in whiteness and polish. Dioscorides states that the difference is specific,
not generic. Spodon is:
3. Full of Straws.
4. Swept from the floors of Laboratories.
Pompholix is White like a Bubble, or like that Greek- vessel of globular
shape from which it obtains its name. It is fat, light, and pure, and is
produced on the top of furnaces. There are, however, properly speaking,
two kinds of Pompholix.
1. Somewhat thick, and of a copperish hue. Its proper name is grey nothing.
2. Exceeding white, of the highest polish. Produced either in perfecting
Copper, when the Cadmic purposely strewn upon the surface is rubbed off;
or from Cadmia melted by means of bellows. Dioscorides gives a lengthy
description of the method. The thin and very light matter which finds its
way to the top of the furnace and adheres to the walls and roof is Pompholix,
but the heavier substance which betakes itself to the lower parts is Spodion.
Dioscorides gives us further information as to genuine and adulterated
Pompholix, the method of washing it, its virtues as an astringent, cooling,
purifying, obstructing, and drying agent. He describes its torrefaction
or roasting, and tells us from what substances it is preferably obtained-•namely,
Gold, Silver, Lead, and Brass. Next to Pompholix from Cyprian Ore comes
Pompholix from Lead. Pliny endorses these statements. Galen ascribes more
powerful virtues to Pompholix than to Spodion. Indeed, Pompholix has a
combination of virtues. Under Cadmia we have mentioned that Cadmia Botryitis,
or Grape-shaped Cadmia, is called Arabian Tutty.
Accordingly, that of Alexandria is called Dry or Solid. But Botryitis
Cadmia is not the same substance as Cadmia, to which the Arabs and Serapion
testify. For the Spodion here treated of is Tutty and a matter of importance.
Botryitis is not Tutty. Dioscorides mentions Spodion and not Tutty. What
is called Tutty by the Arabs and Pompholix by the Greeks is by us termed
Spodion. Avicenna testifies to this fact. We can use Botryitis Cadmia instead
of Tutty, that is, of Spodion, if it has been prepared. The difference
between Botryitis and Capnitis Cadmic, and between Pompholix and Spodion,
which are all made of the same material, depends upon the places where
they are made. Cadmic Botryitis is made or deposited on the walls or the
highest roofs of the furnaces. On the other hand, Capnitis is, properly
speaking, obtained from the edges of the furnaces. Genuine Pompholix, or
White Nothing, an exceedingly light Metallic Ash, is produced on the tops
of furnaces, or even on the tops of the huts in which the furnaces are
situated. If obtained from the mouth of the furnace, it is Cadmia Capnitis;
if from the sides and roofs, it is Pompholix; that which adheres to the
walls is Spodion. Young students should diligently observe these points.
The Arabs distinguish two varieties of Tutty: Native Tutty
- Rulandus: White, Green,
or Citrine-found among minerals on the shores of the Indian Ocean; also
Manufactured, of which we treat here. Observe also that besides the Sooty
Spodion of Serapion, Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen
- Rulandus: who says: I have
never used Spodion, because I have always found Pompholix in abundance
- Rulandus: the Arabs distinguish two other species.
1. Spodion from a reed and the root of a reed, or a product of Burnt
Ultramarine, as Avicenna has it, who describes Spodion, saying: Spodion
is a Root of Burnt Reeds, being cold in the second and dry in the third
degree. But it may also be obtained from Burnt Ivory.
2. Spodion derived from the Calcined Bones of Elephants, Dogs, and other
Bone is still found to exist in Spodion, at any rate in the variety
which is obtained from ivory. It should be noted that now-a-days we never
see either Spodion or Antispodion in our laboratories, and nobody knows
them by experience; we carefully collect foreign substances, but those
close at home we neglect. It should be rescued by physicians from the furnaces,
but I speak to dull ears. Moreover, some call Copper Rust Spodion. The
statement of Pliny should be noted, that Pompholix and Spodion are found
in copper mines, and that Pompholix differs from Spodion in the fact that
the first is subjected to washing, while the second is not. He also states
that Pompholix is an extremely white and polished substance and is the
smoke from Copper and Cadmia. Spodion, however, is blacker and heavier;
it is rubbed from the walls of furnaces, and is frequently mixed with embers
and coals. That from Cyprus is the best, and it is obtained by melting
Cadmia and Copper Stone. The same author represents Red Mellea as a species
of Spodion. Then there is another kind called Lauriotis, which is obtained
from gold and silver smelting furnaces. Finally, he mentions Antispodion,
and enumerates its medical virtues. He is also the authority for the statement
that Spodion can be produced from Lead in the same way as from Cyprian
Spodion: From Cyprian Copper, as stated by Dioscorides and Pliny.
Our Spodion Goslarian Spodos has similar qualities. From Lead, in the smelting
houses of Misnia,
1. The Soot which is collected in Compartments of Furnaces.
2. Pompholix from Silver.
3. Slimy, sticking to the walls where Silver is separated from bead.
Yellow, Poisonous, Crystalline Arsenic.
4. From Mansfeld Copper.
5. That which is collected where Silver is separated from Copper.
6. Obtained from Furnaces where White Lead is smelted.
7. Purest White. Best Crystalline Arsenic.
8. That which is Solidified from Pieces of Stone roasted when Copper
9. White Pompholix, termed by the Metallurgists White Nothing.
- POMPHOLIX, TUTTYand
- Rulandus: are one and the same.
- POMPHOLIX LUTEA
- Rulandus: Crystalline Arsenic.
- Rulandus: A Gum so called.
- Rulandus: Shavings from Hammered Iron.
- Rulandus: A Rasp or Copper Mortar.
- Rulandus: A Corn on the Foot.
- Rulandus: That which can be Drunk in by the Mouth.
- PRASIS or
- GREEN PRASIMUM
- Rulandus: Flower of Copper.
- Rulandus: i.e., Press, Wine-press, etc,
- Rulandus: is when bodies rusted by means of Corroding
Waters and dissolved into Water are reduced to a sort of Lime by removal
of the Corroding Water. Thus Silver is precipitated when it is dissolved
in Aqua Fortis by the injection of Common Salt or Ammoniac. So also is
Gold reduced by dissolution in Aqua Regis with the addition of a little
Quicksilver. If to this we add a small quantity of Sulphur, and place it
in the fire in a closed vessel, in such a manner that the Quicksilver and
the Sulphur can evaporate and depart, a most subtle Lime will be left.
But by so much the more that bodies are dissolved, by so much also can
they be calcined into a more subtle condition.
- PRAEFECTUS METALLORUM
- Rulandus: Overseer of the Mines.
- Rulandus: A Presage, is a Wonderful Sign of a Future Event,
anticipating History. Thence Prophecies are sometimes made.
- Rulandus: Medicaments which Preserve Life and Prevent
- PRESES SEU MAGISTER METALLICORUM
- Rulandus: Head Or Overseer of the
- PRAESES FODINAE
- Rulandus: Master of the Mine.
- PRAESES OFFICIME
- Rulandus: Superintendent of the Laboratory, Chief
- PRAESES LABORIS LAVANDI
- Rulandus: Superintendent of the Washing Process.
- PRESMUCHUM or
- Rulandus: Ceruse, White Lead.
- PRINCIPIA CHYMIA
- Rulandus: The Principles of the Alchemists are three
in number: Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury, i.e., Body, Soul, and Spirit. Thence
spring all things which exist; they can be exhibited in all things, and
into them all things can be resolved.
Salt gives consistency, colour, strength, hardness; it makes substances
visible and tangible; without it, they could not be grasped. It is depicted
- Rulandus: [Sol], fiery and watery.
Sulphur imparts warmth, light, and strength; it gives the tincture.
It is represented by a [Venus] fiery, with the Cross and Labour.
Mercury gives sponginess, subtlety, and fusibility, also weight and
malleable quality; it makes them capable of being hammered and forged;
it gives also celestial efficacy; it is represented by [Mercury], which
enters into many planetary characters, and is connected with the symbols
of Gold and Silver.
- Rulandus: Principles are those things whence a substance
is produced in any genus of composites. These primes, or principles, because
of their immanence, have a certain basic substance, wherein they flourish,
and whereby they are produced. They are not those of Aristotle, which are
not primeval substances, but, as the types of every genus, have at the
same time an analogy with our principles. The properties of principles
are based sometimes in the elemental and sometimes in the celestial region.
Accordingly, they sometimes resemble elements, and at other times essences.
These principles are three
- Rulandus: Mercury, Salt, Sulphur.
- PRIMA TEMPERATURA
- Rulandus: The First Flux.
- Rulandus: Illusory Bodies made visible
by the agency of the Stars.
- Rulandus: The exaltation of a substance by a Projecting Medicine
-which is projected over the matter to be transformed, by a sudden egression.
It corresponds to the process of fermentation, which changes a matter substantially
by acting within it. It differs from it, however, in that it is not effected
by means of a slow digestion, whereby the different parts undergo alteration
and mixture; it is, on the contrary, performed by a violent interpenetration,
which transforms at the moment of ingression. Moreover, the Medicine is
not called a Ferment, but a Tincture.
- Rulandus: An Extraction by means of a Thinning of the Subtle
Parts, so that being rarefied by the change of their nature, and separated
from their coarser parts, they assume a certain consistency. Accordingly,
things employed in prolectation are called Attenuating Agents. Before the
substance to be operated on assumes consistency, a free, gaseous, or watery
matter is added; the prolectation takes place by the agency of the several
elements, and the substance operated on may differ from a solid earth only
by reason of its lightness and instability.
- Rulandus: A First Species of Tartar; a sort of Stone in the
- PRUINA, PRUNA
- Rulandus: Persian Fire; the Disease called St. Anthony's
- Rulandus: i.e., Sand.
- Rulandus: White Lead.
- Rulandus: Ceruse.
- Rulandus: Coldness.
- Rulandus: Temporal Artery; the Pulse; Arterial Veins.
- Rulandus: A Profound Stupor; Apoplexy;
Palsy; the Hand of God.
- Rulandus: In Arabic Famechi or Fenec, i.e., Pumice Stone, or
Stone of Vulcan. There are two kinds, black and white. The black is also
called Tufa. The best quality is from Melos, Scyros, and the Aeolian Isles;
it is very useful for polishing bodies, as Catullus tells us. Dioscorides
describes the white variety as light, spongy, easily split, not sandy,
capable of polish. He describes the method of burning it and its medicinal
virtues, concerning which see also Pliny. Theophrastus, if I mistake not,
says: We call it Pumice Stone on account of its hardness, not on account
of its density; in this matter, it has scarcely the quality of a stone.
It falls from the dignity of a stone, because it floats in water. Pumice
Stone is found and produced in conjunction with Alum and Sulphur. I think
it is earth completely burnt in the Isles, and to this waters are added.
It is also called the Stone of Barche, and it is found on the seashore.
Hence some imagine erroneously that it is the solidified foam of the sea.
By the German rivers, especially the Elbe, and by the promontories of the
old March, are found pale Stones, spongy and loose in texture, resembling
Pumice Stone, but heavy, and which have been thought to be the foundation
of Pumice Stone, or Pumice Stone not yet cooked by the sun. An experiment
was made to see whether fire would diminish its weight, and it was found
it did to a certain extent. Pliny states that seaweed and fungi are transformed
into Pumice Stone by the action of the sun. See Serapion. Ovid, very elegantly
describing the cavernous bath of Diana, represents it to be formed of Pumice
Stone and Tuff Stone by Nature herself.
"In her furthest retreat is a woodland cavern not artificially elaborated;
Nature by her own skill bath hollowed it out; she bath constructed it of
living Pumice Stone and light Tufa".
- Rulandus: Powder; Dust.
- PURGARE, PURGATIO
- Rulandus: To Purge; Purifying.
1. Some Things are Purified by Distillation, as Water.
2. Some by Distillation, as Spirit.
3. Some by Solution, as Salt.
4. Some by Washing, as Cloth.
5. Some by Burning, as Lime.
6. Some by Separation, as Metals.
7. Some by Filtration, as through Cloth.
- PURGATOR ARGENTI
- Rulandus: Silver Refiner.
- Rulandus: To Putrefy.
- Rulandus: Putrefaction takes place in Seven Ways.
1. Some Things are Cleansed by Distillation through the Alembic, as
2. Some by Sublimation, as Spirit.
3. Some by Solution, as Salt.
4. Some by Washing, as Cloth.
5. Some by Burning, as Lime.
6. Some by Separation, as Metals.
7. Some by Filtration, or Straining.
- Rulandus: Reduction to Powder.
- PULVIS VALENS
- Rulandus: A Potent Powder.
- Rulandus: A Shaft; a Ventilator; a Pit; a Well.
- PUTEUS RECTUS
- Rulandus: A Perpendicular Shaft.
- PUTEUS QUI LACUNA LOCO EST
- Rulandus: A Conduit for Water.
- Rulandus: Rotten, Loose, Friable.
- Rulandus: Dissolution of a Composite Substance by Purification
in Heated Moisture. It is necessary for the humidity to overcome the dryness
by the agency of external heat. When this is done, the heat, being akin
to its moist substance, is separated from the component parts, preserves
its homogeneous nature, and solidifies apart. Accordingly, if the matter
to be putrefied abounds in moisture, it is beaten up as it is, and operated
on by the warm digestion of dung, or of the bath, a moist heat being applied
externally. If the matter originally possesses little or no moisture, it
is ground, and then proportionally sprinkled with moisture.
Putrefaction is the Dissolution of Component Parts, which have opened
out under the dissolving power of a moist heat. It is the key to the most
brilliant alchemical operations. It separates not so much the elements
as the celestial essences from their elementary composition. Accordingly,
in such experiments we must be on our guard against a complete dissolution,
using only one that shall be enough to permit the escape of the essences.
Hence it becomes plain that in composite substances, unusually removed
from elemental simplicity, there is something internal besides the element,
and this something is regarded as incombustible. By a natural putrefaction
it produces a new substance, and solidifies. This kind of dissolution is
twofold-putrefaction and dissolution by medicine.
There is another kind of putrefaction which occupies a middle place
between corrosive calcination and putrefaction. It is called Dry and Philosophical
Putrefaction. Some, not without reason, name it Sublimation of Elements,
Cooking, and Solution. It takes place in the dry water of the philosophers,
or very sharp vinegar, and belongs only to the Sun and Moon.
Putrefaction is a Digestion, dissolving the substance of the matter
by the application of external heat. It is the property of putrefaction
to destroy the old, original nature of a thing, and to introduce a new
nature. It has sometimes the same result as a second generation. Corrosive
spirits become sweet and mild thereby, and all colours are changed into
others. The pure is separated from the impure-the latter sinking to the
bottom. But the matter must be placed in the vessel, the vessel must be
put into dung, the heat of the dung being sustained for a fixed period.
It is preferable, however, for the vessel to be put into a bath of dew.
Putrefaction or Corruption takes place when a body becomes black. Then
it stinks like dung, and true solution follows. The elements are separated
and destroyed. Many colours are afterwards developed, until the victory
is obtained and everything is reunited.
Putrefaction is understood as a Corruption which changes one thing into
- PUSTA DIGESTIO
- Rulandus: An Internal Digestion of Iron.
- Rulandus: Pygmies are Little Men or Subterranean Spirits. They
are called also Torches and Sparks. They are said to have no parents, but
are produced from the corruption of the earth, just as beetles are generated
from putrid horsedung.
- Rulandus: are the same, for what the Romans
and Greeks called Pyrites the Arabs term Marcasite and Black Zeg. Others
call it the Stone of Light, on account of its effects; also Marcasite Capporosa,
Copper Stone, Chalcitis, Rock Alum in its first signification, etc. All
that the Greeks have written concerning Pyrites the Arabs ascribe to Marcasite
in their own language.
It is called Pyrites because fire is often struck from it. Hence we
give it the generic name of Flint or Fire Stone. Soldiers use it for lighting
bombs. It has also this name on account of its fiery colour. Otherwise,
the Germans simply call it Gravel and Copper Stone. But these names have
too wide a meaning.
Various kinds of Pyrites are found in our mines-Silver Colour, almost
Gold Colour, True Gold Colour like Galena, Ashen Colour, and Iron Colour.
Silver-coloured Pyrites, the White or Water Pyrites, or Gravel of the
Metallurgists. Silver is smelted from it. Pliny mentions it, if I mistake
not, but, like all the ancients, is ignorant of its argentiferous character.
Copper is also smelted from it, as Serapion testifies of Marcasite. Dioscorides
also plainly states this fact concerning Pyrites. Silver-coloured Pyrites
sometimes contains Silver only, sometimes Copper only, sometimes both,
and again it may contain Silver and Black Lead, or several metals. Occasionally
it is barren. I consider that it usually has more Silver than any other
Semi-gold-coloured Pyrites, called by the Germans Yellow Pyrites, Yellow
Copper, Pyrites Copper, Metal Regulus or Copper Ore. Found often in our
Silver, but more frequently in our Copper Mines. Copper can be smelted
from it. It is Pyrites proper, with the appearance of Copper, as Pliny
observes. It is the true Marcasite of the Arabs, whence Copper is smelted.
Dioscorides prefers it before all others for its medicinal value, especially
when it is solid and yields sparks readily. He also shows how it is washed
and burnt. Yet the first species of Pyrites is not to be despised medicinally.
When Dioscorides says the second kind is like Copper, he refers to its
shape rather than its colour. Like the former, it contains sometimes Silver,
sometimes Copper, sometimes both, sometimes other metals, and occasionally
it is barren. Pliny testifies that both species were found in Cyprus and
round Acarnania or Acamania. It exists in many of our own mines. Whether
of Golden or Silver Colour, it is often found among argentiferous metals,
and still more often in a sterile vein of its own. It is also found in
brooks and rivers, such as the Elbe. When it exists in large quantities
a kind of stone is obtained from it which is very useful in smelting. Sterile
Pyrites is found abundantly at Havelburg, and is very beautiful.
True Gold-coloured Pyrites has a larger proportion of Sulphur. It is
sometimes combined with the fourth species. It is brilliant and pleasant
to the sight. It abounds in Bohemia and Misnia.
Galena-coloured Pyrites-sparkling and brilliant. Agricola thinks that
it may be neither Pyrites nor Galena, but a distinct genus. It is true
that Pyrites possesses neither its colour nor hardness. It has the colour
of Galena, but its substance is very different. Gold and Silver are smelted
from it. It abounds near Reichstein and Ravrisum, but at the latter place
contains more Silver than Gold, while at the former Gold preponderates,
or is exclusive.
Grey Pyrites is found in an exceedingly subtle condition at Reichstein,
and is combined with the fourth species, so that Gold can be smelted from
it. It exists in a slightly different form in Silesia, and from this also
Gold and Silver are smelted.
Iron-coloured Pyrites is mentioned by Avicenna. It is found in certain
iron mines. The miners call it Iron Stone, not that it is actually such,
but is like it. From most of these six species fire can be struck. Some
of them are very heavy, and are more adapted for striking fire, as Pliny
observes. Some distinguish a special genus of Pyrites, which abounds in
fire, and is called Live Pyrites. We may, indeed, deny that there is any
other genus. Those species which are dense and compact, as the first two,
abound in fire. The looser the texture, the more subtle and the more broken
up, the less fire can be elicited. Albertus, though a man wise in his time,
makes extraordinary mistakes about Pyrites, yet he is said to have written
very carefully concerning all the metals. He states that fire consumes
every species of Pyrites, or, as he calls it, Marcasite. He denies that
Metals are melted from Marcasite, whereas Avicenna says that there is a
Marcasite of Gold, Silver, Copper, and Iron. Dioscorides teaches that Copper
is melted from Pyrites, and Serapion, the Arab, confirms the same point.
Had Albertus read these statements he would not have fallen into such an
error. He probably accepted the statements of chemists too readily, without
diligently examining mines or metals. Pyrites has remarkable medicinal
virtue of an abstergent and removing kind. As to its burning and washing,
see Dioscorides. Pliny states that Black Pyrites burns the hand when touched.
Hence the ancient verses: " It requires to be touched gently, and held
in a delicate hand, for too hard a pressure burns his fingers who handles
I have not come across Black Pyrites myself, and so have been unable
to test the above statement. Possibly Pliny is referring to Black Cobalt,
which possesses the quality in question. Solinus corroborates Pliny, who
also terms Coral Pyrites, because fire can be derived from it. On the same
ground he institutes a comparison with Chalcedony and common Flint, while
others identify our Cuprine Slate with Pyrites. This Stone is very susceptible
to impressions when under the earth. Sometimes it has representations of
fishes, serpents, and tree-crickets; sometimes an elaborate picture of
a cock with drooping feathers and double comb.
1. Covered with Yellow Fluor.
2. Mixed with Yellow Fluors.
3. In a Metallic Marble-easily split, Wedge-shaped, yielding no Fire.
4. Mixed with White Fluor and Metallic Marble.
1. Solid, True Gold-colour-called by its Spanish name of Marcasite.
2. Mansfeldian, with White Opaque Fluors. 3. Earthy, rich in Plumbago
True Gold-coloured Pyrites:
1. Earthy, like Fine Gold.
2. Earthy, with many Angles and Points.
3. Mixed with White Hornstone.
4. Composed of Small Square Stones.
5. Full of Angles, with White, Pellucid, Cubical Fluors on the outside.
6. Spongy, full of Round or Angular Granules.
Gold-coloured Pyrites from which fire is not struck:
1. Angular, Gold-yellow, Copper Pyrites in a Water Pyrites.
2. Gishubelian, containing Tinsel.
3. Ditto, containing Barren Pitch-like Plumbago.
4. Containing a beautiful Yellow Earth.
5. Annebergian, easily Melting in Fire.
Grey Pyrites yielding no fire:
1. Spongy and Honey-combed.
2. Containing Sterile Plumbago.
3. Of Loose Texture, like Soft Sandstone.
4. Spongy, with White Fluors, Sprinkled with Purple, Red, and Green
5. Earthy, containing much Gold and Silver.
6. Grey-black Suacensian Pyrites, devoid of Copper or Silver.
7. Spongy, Dyed Black by a Warm Exhalation.
8. Grey, Long, like a Bundle of Twigs, and exuding Atrament or Green
9. Earthy, Grey Copper-stone from Hildesheim, whence Atrament flows
abundantly, according to the weather.
10. Earthy, from Radeberg, yielding Sulphur. Fire-yielding Pyrites of
11. Black, Earthy, like Pit Coal.
12. Sterile, Melts in Fire, often combined with Infusible Ore instead
13. Easily Melted.
14. Poisonous Water-Flint, combined with Veins of White Lead at Eberndorf.
It is fatal to drink or wash in it.
Various-coloured Pyrites, yielding no fire:
1. Golden, Green, Blue, Violet, Purple, and Grey-Spongy. Also White
2. Golden, Red, Purple, Blue, and Green, in White Fluors.
3. Rainbow-tinted, on a Grey Stone.
4. Multi-coloured, in Metallic Marble, which is White upon Red in Flesh
5. Variegated Copper Pyrites in Orange-coloured Ironstone.
6. Like Polished Copper, a Red Copper Pyrites.
7. Fine Red Copper Pyrites, on a Grey Stone, resembling Small Granulated
Fire-yielding Red Pyrites:
1. Red, very Hard, Copper Pyrites, from Islebia, like Red jasper.
2. Grey-white, Spongy, Fire-yielding.
3. Containing Metallic Plumbago, or Glance.
4. Spongy, tinged with Pyrites Water till it assumes a Copper-red, and
resembles Polished, Purified Copper.
Pyrites of other colours, yielding no fire:
1. Spongy, Blue Pyrites.
2. Violet Brown.
4. Brown or Purple, containing Native Chrysocolla.
5. Brilliant or Sparkling, like Plumbago.
Pyrites yielding sap:
1. Yielding Chalcitis.
2. Yielding Sory or Black Atrament.
3. Yielding Melanteria, a kind of Vitriol.
4. Grey, yielding Vitriol abundantly.
5. Silver-coloured in a vein of Quicksilver.
6. From Cromena in Moravia, yielding Sap like Red, Pellucid Sulphur.
Pyrites containing various metals:
1. Containing Gold.
2. Containing Silver.
3. Aserosus (?).
4. Found in Lygia, containing much Gold and Silver.
5. Bohemian, rich in Gold and Silver.
6. Rich in Copper and Black Lead.
7. Containing Lead and Iron.
8. Earthy, white, hard, fragmentary, used in polishing.
9. Found in ponds, gold-colour, in a cluster of two or three.
10. Silver-coloured, dyed grey by a slimy or poisonous vapour.
1. Eight or twelve-sided, white, Iron Pyrites.
2. Cloddy, in hard, white, sandy earth.
3. Brightish yellow, like Wolfs-Foam.
4. Fribergian, mixed with White Plumbago.
5. From Marieburg, composed of small tessellated pieces like Native
6. Containing Native Yellow Sulphur.
7. Scaly, resembling the skin of a serpent, dyed grey by subterranean
1. White Water Pyrites, as if made of small, thin, polished, silver
2. Cubical White Iron Pyrites.
3. A White Iron Pyrites in a metallic red spar.
4. Ornamented with square, purple, or amethyst-coloured transparent
5. In a silver-white spar, which sparkles like Mica.
6. White Iron Pyrites, covered with round, white grains of Quartz, like
7. Spongy and sparkling.
8. Like Pumice-stone, dyed black by a warm exhalation.
- Rulandus: i.e, Lithos, in Greek, Marcasite.
- Rulandus: Art of prophesying by means of fire, when the
stars of fire become visible to man, so that a true answer to a question
is given without any hesitation. For instance, take the statements concerning
the box-tree. When its leaves have been put in the fire, after writing
severally upon them the names of suspected persons, that of the guilty
individual is said to crackle and leap out. Pyromancy is the art of adapting
fire to our purposes and of ruling it. In this art especially the diligence
of the alchemist is manifested; great indeed is the praise of the artificer,
although there is much more value in practice than in precept, and there
are some things which require active eyes and hands, not words only. The
external heat which the artificer employs as his primary instrument is
a certain heat which we call fire. Yet is the operation of cold by no means
to be excluded, nor moisture, nor dryness, which at times singly, and at
times in combination, will much assist the master.
- Rulandus: We only employ this term in the preparation of
natural things by the aid of fire.
- Rulandus: Otherwise, a Conical Pan-is a metallic vessel shaped
like a pyramid internally, the upper part being broad. The lower part narrows
down to a point. The interior is, therefore, like an inverted Cone. The
lower part is useful for reducing molten metals to a regulus.