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- Rulandus: i.e., Cucurbit.
- Rulandus: i.e., Cucurbit.
- OBRIZUM AURUM
- Rulandus: i.e., Pure Gold.
- OBRIZUM AURUM PURUM
- Rulandus: Gold Calcined to a Dark Red by means
- OCOS, OCOP, OBACor
- Rulandus: i.e., Sal Ammoniac.
- Rulandus: Yellow Earth; called Uger.
- OCRA GRAECIS
- Rulandus: A Slimy Earth, called Sil by the Latins. It
is twofold-native and manufactured. Native Yellow Ochre, or Yellow Earth,
is obtained in the mines of Germany. There is a variety like Chrysocolla,
and another called Sander's Blue. Dacian and Hungarian Ochres are most
in use among painters. Our own is somewhat despised. Dioscorides (1. 5,
c. 58) praises that of Attics, which is very light, brittle, slimy, aqueous,
and free from grittiness. He also states that it can be burnt and cleansed
like Cadmia, and that its medical quality is astringent, biting, and dispersing.
There are various species of Ochre
Some metallic; some hard, as is
our own; some simply a yellow earth, and this also is found in our mines.
Theophrastus merely describes it as Ochrine Earth. Pliny enumerates (1.
33, c, 12) divers kinds of Sil, or Ochre, and says that the best of these
pigments-whether yellow or blue-are derived from Metallic Ores containing
Gold and Silver, that Ochre is properly a slime, that the Attics is the
best, and that its nature is like marble. There is also compressed Ochre
from Cyrus; Achaica, Gaul, India, etc. In the thirteenth chapter of the
same book he says that dyeing with Ochre was first invented by a Myconian.
Ochre is also found in rivers, as the Elbe, and above all in the Ocra,
which flows through Brunswick, whence the substance takes its name, and
is called Ochre in Saxony. If the matter be rightly regarded, we have four
species of Ochre.
1. From the mines, of a stony quality, and found also on the shore and
banks of rivers.
2. A Dust, or Dry Earth, adhering to stones, like Chrysocolla, Blue,
etc. This is obtained from the stone quarries of Salveldia.
3. Another Dry Earth, found on river banks.
4. Slimy and sticky, or tenacious, of the nature of marble, and obtained
from mines. That Ochre which is found in mines and by rivers, being parched
by the heat either of the earth or the sun, is changed into native toddle,
and consequently into a kind of clay. Ochre which begins to be changed
into ruddle, but is still partly Ochrine, receives its colour from the
sun or earth. Artisan's ruddle is made from artificially burnt Ochre. Manufactured
Ochre is made from Lead.
- OCHRA ATTICA
- Rulandus: Ochre which is yellow as the yolk of an egg.
- Rulandus: i.e., Vinegar.
- OCCIDENS STELLA
- Rulandus: i.e., Sal Ammoniac.
- Rulandus: Mercury, Saturn, Salt, Spice, Hermaphrodite, Living
Water, Viscous Water, etc.
- ODORIFERA MEDICAMENT
- Rulandus: are Medicaments which infuse health
by their fragrance, and so dispel also diseases.
- Rulandus: A Workshop in which Lead is separated from Silver.
- Rulandus: A Workshop in which Silver is Separated from Brass.
Any Place for Refining and Roasting metals.
- OLEA SOLUTA
- Rulandus: Dissolved Oils, are those which separate by a
melting of the subtle oleaginous parts. Accordingly, this is done in the
same way as the magisteries of liquids, except that for the magistery all
the matters are dissolved into a liquid, and in this case the internal
essential parts are dissolved into a thick sap, the coarser parts being
left. It is necessary that there should be a preparation in order that
they may flow and yield oleaginous matter. Hence they are generally prepared
like magisteries, by calcination, maceration, cooking, etc., unless the
matter is so tenuous that it will flow with little trouble.
- Rulandus: i.e., Fire, is extracted from a dry substance, but
the water from a moist substance, for the oil and the water distil each
other, and that which remains below is called earth.
- Rulandus: is called the First Water, i.e., distilled from blood
- OLEUM BENEDICTUM
- Rulandus: is made of bricks.
- OLEUM FRUMENTI
- Rulandus: Spring Barley Oil, prepared in two ways, on
a glowing plate, and by an ascending distillation.
- OLEUM SULPHURIS
- Rulandus: A Vapour Extracted by Elevation from Prepared
- OLEUM FIXUM
- Rulandus: is that which is reduced to an oily consistency
out of dissolved matters, purified by filtration, by means of frequent
abstraction, chiefly of spirit of wine. And what we call fixing is causing
that which is diffuse and of small density to become oily and firm by abstracting
or digesting its aqueous part. Hence it is needful that it should be dissolved
in water, so that the coarse parts being separated by filtration, the thin
parts may be immersed in moisture, whence they may be reduced by means
of such a fixation. It is a common practice to dissolve the matter in any
liquid, applying maceration, cooking, or melting, either to the matter
alone, or combined with other things, The refuse is purged off by filtration.
- Rulandus: Oil is either Distilled or Secreted. Distilled Oil
is that which is extracted by distillation, which is performed either by
ascension, descension, or mixing, or combination, which is absorption.
Every absorption is performed by distillation only, but mixing can be effected
in other ways.
- OLEUM PALESTINUM
- Rulandus: Vinegar.
- OLEUM STILLATITIUM DESCENSORIUM
- Rulandus: is Oil Obtained by Distillation
- OLEUM PER ELIXATIONEM EXTRACTUM
- Rulandus: is that which is extracted
by cocoon, which can be performed either by boiling in moisture, or by
a dry flame.
- OLEUM EX ASSATIONE
- Rulandus: is Oil obtained by roasting at a dry flame,
no menstruum being used. Sometimes the method of burning is substituted
for that of roasting.
- OLEUM ARDENS
- Rulandus: is Oil of Tartar, consummately corrected.
- OLEUM VITRIOLI AURIFICATUM
- Rulandus: Aureated Oil of Vitriol is Vitriol
sweetened by Gold.
- OLEUM COLCOTHARINUM
- Rulandus: is Red Oil of Vitriol.
- OLEITAS RERUM
- Rulandus: is the Sulphur which exists in all things.
- OLYMPICUS SPIRITUS
- Rulandus: The Star in Man, the Astral Body which
sends forth doubles.
- Rulandus: is the Moisture or Glue of Metals which flows upon the
Menstruum when they are dissolved.
- Rulandus: is a Gem which, according to Pliny, 1. 37, c. 6, is
shaped like a nail or talon. There are many species, some having the colour
of Chrysolith, some of Sand, some of jasper. Those of India are black,
full of fire, hard, encircled by white veins, which give the whole stone
the appearance of an eye. There are Arabian Onyxes which are also black,
and have white bands, but they thin from the Indian forms. (See Pliny,
1. c.) We call the gem Sardonyx, from Sarda, which name has affinity with
Onyx, and some say that the one stone is found in conjunction with the
other. It is said further that Onyx in an erudition of a tree which hardens
into a stone. When fire is applied to it, it emits a smell and various
figures and marks appear on it. Albertus distinguishes red, black, and
white species of Onyx, all of which when they are rubbed resolve into a
substance like the human nail. They also say that these gems cause sadness
and apprehension. They act upon melancholy temperaments, and provoke turbulent
dreams and contentions. They increase saliva in boys. In conjunction with
Sard or Sardonyx, their power is softened, and they make men chaste and
1. Pure, transparent, horn-coloured Onyx.
2. Horn-coloured Onyx, having distinct white and purple transverse bands.
3. Horn-coloured Onyx, having milky bands in the upper part, and transverse
purple bands in the lower.
4. Horn-coloured Onyx, which is naturally ornamented with lines of red
5. Horn-coloured Onyx in which there are lines of dark brown jasper.
6. Horn-coloured Onyx full of red spots.
7. White, transparent Onyx, on which escutcheons are inscribed.
8. Impure, whey-like Onyx.
- Rulandus: India is properly the Land of the Opal. It is a Precious
Gem, inasmuch as it has the fire of the carbuncle, but somewhat softened
; the purple effulgence of the amethyst ; and the sea greenness of the
emerald. There are several kinds. Some Opals have the smooth and equable
hues of orpiment, some the ardent glow of sulphur, some the splendour of
burning oil. The size of the opal is that of a hazel-nut. Those are corrupt
if the colour be of crystal or like hailstones, or if they have spots,
eyes, or other blemishes. On account of its beauty, it is called Paederos
after one of the Cupids or Loves. Opals are also said to be found in Egypt,
Arabia, and the Pontus, but these are the poorest ; better qualities are
from Galatia, Thrace, and Cyprus.
- Rulandus: is a species of Marble, of which Dioscorides enumerates
Rulandus: one black and heavy, another of ash colour, with grey
lines and spots, found in Germany, at Mount Joachim; a third, with white
bands. It is called Ophites because of its serpent-like hue. It is not
true Echites, which is spotted like a viper, though the latter may be a
variety of Uphite; nor is it dracontias, nor our serpentine marble ; and,
again, it is not to be confused with the stone which is said to be taken
from the head of the dragon, or to be composed of the froth of the dragon.
That species which has black and grey lines is exactly like our serpents
in colour. At the port of Tangra, where once was the royal seat of Charles
IV., in the citadel, the temple is adorned with gems, and the walls on
all sides are enriched with this kind of Ophite ; the same is a species
of adder-stone, which has marks like a viper. There is also another species
of Ophite, more nearly approaching the form of a serpent, because it has
scales like the serpent; it is, moreover, a crustaceous stone. It is found
in many parts of Saxony, but is altogether disesteemed. There is also a
third species of Ophite, found on the banks of the Elbe, near Tangra. It
is a slender, oblong stone, in shape, like a serpent, as though a serpent
had hardened into stone. Within it is black approaching blue; without it
is white. Pliny says that its name is derived from its serpentlike spots.
He distinguishes two classes-the soft and white, and the dark, which is
hard. From the white, he tells us that vessels and caskets are made. Ophite
is good for lethargy, headache, and snake-bites.
- Rulandus: A Workman.
- Rulandus: The Cover of a Refining Furnace.
- OPERCULUM AMPULLAE
- Rulandus: The Cover of an Alembic.
- OPERCULUM SUPERTORIS FORAMINIS TABULATI FOLLIUM
- Rulandus: A Door, Stopper,
- Rulandus: A Mineral Spirit.
- Rulandus: To Shut, Cover, or Conceal.
- Rulandus: An Astringent, Constipating Medicine.
- Rulandus: is the most excellent Sticking Plaster of Theophrastus.
- OPS METALLUM
- Rulandus: Quicksilver.
- Rulandus: Patched, Sewed On.
- Rulandus: i.e., Vessel.
- Rulandus: A Dish, or Circular piece of Leather.
- ORBIS SAXEUS
- Rulandus: A Round Stone.
- Rulandus: Precipitated Cryetals of Salt in the Salt Pan.
- Rulandus: i.e., Urine.
- Rulandus: A Solution of Iron in Muriatic Acid. The Ascent, Red
Olitet, the Father, Red Vitriol, the Ruby, Husband, Salt of Urine, Sun,
Gold and Sulphur, Summer, Tartar, Ashes, Ore, Wine.
- Rulandus: is a Small Ulcer in the Eyebrows, like Grains of
- Rulandus: is Heart Burn, a Heat rising from the Stomach to the
- Rulandus: The Art of Making Warlike Instruments.
- ORICHALCEA FILA
- Rulandus: Brazen Threads, or Brushes.
- Rulandus: i.e., Gold.
- ORIZEUM FOLIATUM
- Rulandus: Gold Beaten into Thin Plates with a Mallet.
- ORIZEUM PRAECIPITATUM
- Rulandus: Gold Reduced to its Flowers by means
of Flowers of Mercury.
- Rulandus: i.e., Rice.
- Rulandus: i.e., a Hen.
- ORNITHAE CECIAS
- Rulandus: South-East.
- Rulandus: Metallic Glass.
- Rulandus: Gold.
- Rulandus: Month.
- OS FORNACIS
- Rulandus: The Eye of the Furnace.
- OS SPIRITALE
- Rulandus: A Damper for Current of Air.
- Rulandus: is a kind of Stone, or Precious Stone, or a species
of Calamine, so called after the Shell of the Oyster, for it can be separated
into flakes after the same manner as the oyster-shell. Pliny seems to speak
of one kind only. Nevertheless, it may be regarded as divisible into three
species, of which the first is like mussel-shell, the second like oyster-shell,
and the third like agate. The first has scissile veins, and is found in
Saxony, as also is the second. On the authority of Dioscorides, Ostracites
checks menstruation, is good for inflammation of the breasts, and for corroding
sores, or swellings.
- Rulandus: i.e., Opium.
- OSSA PARALLELI
- Rulandus: is a Medicament universally used in Gout.
- OSTRUTIUM TRANSPLANTUM
- Rulandus: i.e., the Herb Angelica.
- Rulandus: The Mercury of the Philosophers. Ovum, i.e., the Blessed
- OVUM PHILOSOPHICUM
- Rulandus: The Philosophical or Hermetic Egg used
in Alchemical Operations.
- Rulandus: Vinegar, or Oil of Palestine, which is Vinegar.
- Rulandus: i.e., Pointed.
- Rulandus: White of Eggs.
- Rulandus: i.e., Arsenic.