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- Rulandus: An Abscess of the Breast.
- Rulandus: i.e., Petroleum, or Asphalt.
- Rulandus: Wolf's bane.
- NATTA GIBBUS
- Rulandus: A Hunchback, or Dwarf.
- Rulandus: i.e., Gum.
- NAPTA ALBA
- Rulandus: i.e., is White Petroleum.
- Rulandus: We have said that the Bitumen of Judea is a species
of Naphtha, but is not true Naphtha. For Naphtha is nothing else but Petroleum,
that liquid oil which, although in an impure form, is manufactured in our
own land. Dioscorides (1. 1, c. 84) says that Naphtha was called Bitumen
by the Babylonians, or Colamen of Bitumen, and that there were black and
white varieties. White Naphtha is our Petroleum. Black is perhaps that
pitchy and glutinous matter of Amiantus, Asbestos, or Earth-flax, which
is not dissimilar from Bitumen, and which when it has once been set on
fire can be extinguished by nothing but dust being heaped over it, like
that slime from the lake of Comagenes mentioned by Pliny. By some among
the ancients this black Naphtha was believed to be the Excrement of Demons,
concerning which I venture to affirm nothing ; but we also have an excrement
of demons, namely, the plant silphium, which produces the juice called
laser. Many stinking substances were held precious by the ancients. Naphtha
is a violent potency of fire, as Dioscorides teaches, and there is no substance
which can compare with it for sustaining and nourishing fire. Pliny cites
an example which occurred in Media at the execution of an adulteress, who
had a crown of naphtha placed on her, and when this crown was set on fire
the woman was consumed. Pliny also bears witness that there is a naphtha
which is found in Babylon and Parthia which is like Liquid Bitumen. Thus
Naphtha is twofold-natural, dealt with by Pliny, and properly Petroleum-manufactured,
which is Colamen of Bitumen, as Dioscorides terms it. And of this there
is one kind which is white, and may be a species of Petroleum, but is inferior
to the native. And there is another kind which is black, and which may
be the Excrement of Demons, so called by the ancients. I affirm that it
is from a subtle Bitumen, i.e., from Naphtha (which is true Petroleum)
indurated by the operation of the sun, as Ovid says of amber, that gagates
is made in the sea, and not from manufactured White Naphtha. Thus Bitumen
is twofold, in the sea, and in the earth, liquid, and hard, or glutinous.
Pissasphaltus is also twofold-native and manufactured. Naphtha is twofold-native
and manufactured. Thus Bitumen, Pissasphaltus, and Naphtha are almost various
species of one thing, and so is the stone Gagates, which is formed of natural
Naphtha, i.e., true Petroleum, as its smell indicates. The Thracian Stone,
another species of Gagates, may be formed of black Bitumen or black Naphtha.
This also burns in water, and is put out by oil. Succinum, or amber, on
the contrary, is made of the resin of trees, though both have the power
of attracting hairs and straws. Succinum does not burn in water, because
of the poorness of its resin. Gagates burns fiercely, and its flame is
increased by water, because of the strength of the Naphtha or Bitumen of
which it consists. So also those coals which are found in our mines, and
which we call Pit Coal, are a kind of Gagates, and nothing else but Bitumen
hardened under the earth, or excocted by heat. This stone also is put out
by oil, and burns fiercely when sprinkled with water, as is the nature
of Bitumen. And those coals also are bituminous with which the mountains
Etna and Vesuvius are burning, as Pliny sets forth, and as we also see
to be the case in many places of Germany, and especially in the night,
because in the day the heat of the sun weakens them or overwhelms them;
but in the night, which is cold and moist, the matter is excited by the
moisture. That species of pyrites, called the Fissile Stone of Islebia,
is evidently bituminous, because it burns quickly, gives forth a bituminous
smell, and takes impressions very easily. For impressions are made upon
a body of this bituminous quality, which is prepared to receive impressions
with as much ease and celerity, as the chemists say, that a soul enters
its body. But of this enough. Petroleum, i.e., Naphtha, which is manufactured
by the Agyrtx, does not come from the tomb of some saint whom I forget,
as is falsely represented. For the rest, there is another manufactured
Naphtha, which is described in the antidotes of Nicander. There is also
a Bituminous Peat which is dug up in Saxony.
- Rulandus: i.e., Fire.
- Rulandus: i.e., Brass.
- Rulandus: A Soporific Medicament, which removes pain, or
at least deadens its. keenness.
- NARDINUM OLEUM
- Rulandus: A kind of Oil, Spikenard.
- Rulandus: Nostril.
- Rulandus: i.e., Nitre.
- Rulandus: is a Salt which is deposited by the moisture of
a Mist, and is hardened by the Sun.
- Rulandus: are Portentous Presages, signifying something
which is to come by signs falling from heaven upon earth; those crosses,
for example, which fell in the days of Maximilian the First.
- Rulandus: are Medicaments which prevent
death and preserve life.
- Rulandus: is a Forbidden Art, by which formerly divinations
were obtained from the dead. But true Necromancy compels the dead to manifest,
and extracts answers and speech from them, and compels them to perform
wonders. Any operations connected with the death's head, bones, shroud
needles, shrouds, or cerements, quivers, sepulchres, and such like, are
comprehended under this cursed art, which is wholly superstitious, and
avoided by Christians.
- Rulandus: A name of those Spirits who inhabit the Elements.
- Rulandus: A Child's Caul, sometimes covering the eye, sometimes
the ear, and sometimes the whole face of a new born child.
- Rulandus: A Rat.
- Rulandus: Formerly a Natural Art, by which man, after a
natural manner, sought to discover the secrets of minerals, metals, and
things hidden in the earth. Afterwards, by the suggestion of the devil,
and through the perversity of wicked men, it fell into abuse, and became
a diabolical art.
- NITRUM, BAURACH, ROCK SALT, SALTPETRE, NITRE
- Rulandus: is Hot and Dry
in the Second Degree. It is a substance having affinity with Salt, and
is a species of Salt. Hence, Transparent Salt, Alexandrine Salt, Salt of
Anderena, Salt of Nitre, are one and the same. But Nitre is formed from
coagulated moisture. We do not know exactly what were the species of Nitre
which are described by the ancients, but they differed from our own. They
were used in food, and blended with wine, as we learn from Pliny 0. 14,
C. 20, and 1. 18, c. 17), as well as from the Georgics of Virgil. Formerly,
they seem to have been also of a rosy colour, bitter, light, spongy, and
easily consumed by fire, whereas, ours in no way correspond to these descriptions,
and are derived from the air, while the ancient Nitres were of terrene
origin. Ours also are of greater medicinal virtues, provoking humours,
and possessing laxative qualities. It should be noted that there are several
species of manufactured Nitre, which are mentioned by Pliny (1. 31, c.
10). By us, Nitre is manufactured in several ways
- Rulandus: in stables, sheepcotes,
ancient dormitories, in rocks, cellars, walls, and other such places, as
well as in old and disused sand-pits. There is also that Nitre which is
called Spumous, and is Aphronitum, Saltpetre, the Spume of Nitre, and a
true species of Nitre. It has affinities with the flower of the Asian rock
or stone, referred to by Dioscorides, and of which we have already treated
(see Lapis Asius). If we consider rightly, Green Chrysocolla, the Scissile
Copper-Stone is a species of Nitre, i.e., Native Nitre. Dioscorides (1.
5, c. 78), describes Spume of Nitre along with Nitre, both as regards the
country of its origin, and its quality. He indicates their medical virtues,
how they are to be treated by fire, and the uses of the crude mineral.
Information upon the same subject will be found in Serapion, under the
name of Baurach.
It will be seen that the species of Nitre may be classified broadly
as follows: Native mined Nitre, similar to salt from the mines. Under the
generic name of Burach the following varieties are included :
1. Armenian, and this is the best kind.
2. Nitre from Rabath, which is either white
Rulandus: very similar to salt
from the mines, and having a medium flavour between salt and vinegar
Manufactured Nitre, like a petrine or saline efflorescence. It is derived
by coction from salt or saline water. The first and the sixth species were
alone known to the Arabians. The Babylonians also had two kinds, namely,
Nitre (rock salt, purple, moderately bitter), and Baurach, with which,
when dissolved in water, it was the custom to besmear loaves before baking,
and thus produce a gloss upon the crust. There is copious information in
Pliny (1. 31, c. 10), on Nitre and spume of Nitre. Nicander also treats
in his Antidotes of Nitre as prevailing against a poisonous potion compounded
of bullock's blood. Nitre is also an ingredient in the powder of the tormentors,
as is well known to the apothecaries of Satan who take their name from
- Rulandus: The Saline Stone, i.e., White Sulphur.
- NITRUM ALEXANDRINUM
- Rulandus: i.e., is Clavellated Ash.
- Rulandus: is a kind of Salt. It is also Borax, and one kind
of Armenian Salt
- Rulandus: black, red, or sapphire.
- Rulandus: is a certain Brine from combinations of Urines prepared
- Rulandus: i.e., Baurac.
- Rulandus: Nitre.
- Rulandus: Sago, Talc.
- NITRUM, TINCARor
- Rulandus: Which See.
- Rulandus: i.e., White Salt, Baurac.
- Rulandus: Vitreous Refuse.
- Rulandus: Whatever Calcines and Burns, as Sulphur, Saltpetre,
whereby one calcines Pearls, Precious Stones, and Corals into a Saltpetre.
- Rulandus: in Arabic; Calchos in Greek; Copper in Latin; Ore in
- Rulandus: Brass or Copper.
- Rulandus: A Necromantic Instrument.
- NOCHAT, NUCHATor
- Rulandus: i.e., Venus, Copper.
- Rulandus: i.e., a Perforated Vessel, Sieve, or Colander.
- NODI ARTICULORUM
- Rulandus: Indurated Tumours, Knots in the joints,
as in gout.
- Rulandus: i.e., a Cover over a Distilling Apparatus.
- Rulandus: i.e, Calx.
- Rulandus: i.e., is Nitre.
- Rulandus: Every kind of Salt.
- Rulandus: (?) A joint (Artus).
- Rulandus: A Ray or Radiation of a certain Star, or its off-scouring,
superfluity, etc., cast on earth. It falls, chiefly during June, July,
and August, upon broad fields or meadows, being like a large fungus or
sponge in appearance, and of a yellow or dark tawny colour, like a coagulated
juice, and to the touch like jelly. By Nostoch some understand Wax.
- Rulandus: i.e., Copper.
- Rulandus: is a second species of Manna, red in colour, such as
falls in Ireland.
- Rulandus: i.e., Venus, or Copper.
- Rulandus: Lead, Black Lead.
- Rulandus: i.e., Ammoniac.
- Rulandus: is Material changed by Putrefaction in the Stomach.
- Rulandus: Spiritual Men and Women, or Corporeal Spirits, inhabiting
water, such as was Melusine.
- Rulandus: The Spirits obtained by heat artificially from
water may be so called.
- NYSADIR, NUSSIADAI, NESTUDAR
- Rulandus: Sal Ammoniac.