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- Rulandus: Base of the Mountain. Bottom of the Mountain.
- Rulandus: Hematite, Bloodstone. There is a green variety. The
Jasp of the Germans is a stone of many species. Dioscorides enumerates
1. Green jasper, like the emerald.
2. Jasper like crystal, similar to phlegm in colour.
3. Jasper not unlike copper.
4. Smoky jasper, called Capnias.
5. Assyrian jasper, encircled by white and lustrous lines.
6. Jasper like terebinth, called Terebinthizusa, being of the colour
7. Jasper, similar to the stone Callais.
All these species are amulets, and, according to Dioscorides, hasten
parturition when applied to the thighs. Pliny (1. 37, c. 8 and 9) enumerates
several species, according to colour, country, and quality, some of which
may be added in this place:
1. Translucent green Jaspar, like the Indian emerald, worn by many people.
It is regarded as an amulet in all the East, and when surrounded by a transverse
white line it is called grammatias and polygrammos.
2. Green or grey-coated Cyprian jasper.
3. Persian Jasper like copper, and hence called aerizusa.
4. Cerulean jasper from the vicinity of Thermodon, a river of Pontus.
5. Purple Jasper of Phrygia.
6. Dull purple or cerulean Jasper of Cappodocia.
7. Thracian Jasper similar to Indian.
8. Dark Jasper of Chalcis.
9. Violet Jasper of Sardis.
10. Crystalline or phlegmatic Jasper.
But the best, according to Pliny, is purple, rose-coloured, or emerald.
He also notes an onyx called Jasponyx, which is a spotted stone, clouded
as with snow, and dotted as with bright sparkling stars, similar to Salt
of Megara, and as if discoloured by smoke. This he calls Capnias, but it
is included by Dioscorides among the varieties of jasper. Pliny, Theophrastus,
and Dioscorides, do seem in a measure to disagree. But this we leave to
be threshed out by more learned persons. The stone which we now call Turquoise
is beyond doubt a species of jasper. Its hue inclines to cerulean, yet
it is sometimes flaxen, glittering, white, shining, and as if milk had
mingled in a yellow colour. It is supposed to have the virtue of strengthening
sight, and preserving from many mischances. We also in Germany possess
a most beautiful species of jasper, which has great efficacy. It is found
in Bohemia, and is of green colour, glittering with red lines and spots,
or otherwise of a brown colour, or chestnut. It is found in Thuringia,
Misnia, and other places. I have found jasper highly efficacious against
excessive menstruation. It helps parturition and protects the foetus.
1. Jasper, on the one hand, similar to emerald, on the other, cerulean,
obtained by mining.
2. Similar to emerald, ornamented with lines. Having blue bands.
3. Blue in green; bluish jasper.
4. Black in green; blackish green jasper.
5. Green, milky jasper. Whitish green jasper.
6. Jasper, called Borea, like a serene blue sky. Oriental Turquoise.
7. A variety of the former, but part green.
8. Another, shining white on blue.
9. Manufactured Borea jasper.
10. Jasponyx, part jasper, part Onyx, or Chalcedony.
11. Purple jasper, mixed with Chalcedony, and having white spots.
12. Purple jasper, full of spots and white blemishes. Also a similar
species of flaxen colour.
13. Purple jasper, very strangely composed of Chalcedony and red and
yellow jasper, in spots and lines.
14. Pure Purple jasper.
15. Corensian jasper, from Misnia; colour of red blood.
16. Black in red.
17. Pale yellow.
18. Beautiful reddish yellow jasper.
19. Yellow, with red spots.
21. Dark liver-coloured jasper.
22. Islebian jasper, red in colour, with white, pellucid, sexangular
fluors, like the stone geodes.
- Rulandus: Herb of the Trinity, Pansy, or Heartsease.
- JUDEX METALLICUS
- Rulandus: An Assaying Officer.
- Rulandus: is Ferment.
- Rulandus: is Tin.
- JURATUS PARTIUM VENDITOR
- Rulandus: A sworn broker of mining shares.
- Rulandus: is Gyps; a kind of plaster.