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- Rulandus: is Iron.
- Rulandus: In Arabic Sedeneg, in German Blutstein, Bloodstone,
on account of the blood colour with which it is tinged, and which it is
also seen to have, which is dug up in mines, and on account of its effect
in stopping the flow of blood in all kinds of bloody fluxes. Pliny distinguishes
between several species according to the places in which they are found,
as Lybia, Egypt, Spain, and between the Weser and Elbe in Germany; also
in Saxony and Anneberg, at Sala, Goslaria, Geuro, Salfeldia, Salburg, Iona,
many species occur.
Hematites may also be classified according to their degrees of hardness
and softness. I am acquainted with the following species:
1. Those which are described by Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 90), and which
are mined in Egypt. They have a black ground, are full of colour, and are
hard, crumbling, smooth in quality, unmixed with any dross, and not encircled
by zones. This species is found among the Hematites obtained from our mines,
but very rarely; I have barely met with a couple, and to the vulgar they
are wholly unknown.
2. A black species, found at Gossaria, which exudes a yellow fluid;
very hard and unknown to jewellers. It is found, but that rarely, in the
portion of the ancient Hercynian forest which filled the country between
the Weser and Elbe. It is undoubtedly the black stone Medus of Albertus,
which also when broken exuded a yellow fluid. There is another species
of a green colour. The name Medus refers to Media whence it is brought,
and it is also found near the Phasis, a river of Colchis.
3. The scissile, purple Hematite, found in many places, notably in the
mines of Hassia.
4. A very beautiful variety which is dug up in Geuro, Anneberg, and
Salfeld. It is much praised by goldsmiths, because it is extremely hard
at the side, and is useful for polishing gems. This also is black and is
like a top in shape.
5. A variety from the same places, black, but exhibiting three colours
at the sides, and is probably the Trichrus of Pliny (1. 37, c. 10), an
African stone which he describes as black and exuding three kinds of moisture
- Rulandus: at the bottom, black; in the middle, blood-red; at the top, white.
This also is top-shaped and hard.
6. There is a sixth species found between the Weser and the Elbe, in
Cherusca, and in certain mountains, which generally has the shape of a
bare head. This is the most beautiful of all, and its shape cannot be sufficiently
admired. I have experienced its wonderful virtue in stopping bleeding at
the nose. Pliny distinguishes between the Hematite and Schistos (1. 36,
c. 20), and between the red-veined Hematite and the crumbling species.
He also calls Hematite by the term Anthracite, a word which the Greeks
gave to many things, including the carbuncle. Sotacus distinguishes five
species, besides the stone Magnesia.
The Haematites of Pliny are as follows:
1. Ethiopian, good for the eyes, classed among the Panchresti, as universally
useful objects. This is the grand Hematite of Pliny. It is found in Ethiopia,
whence also comes the Ethiopian Magnesia, or loadstone, to which it is
closely allied, even to the ruddiness of its colour. If broken, it gives
forth a red and yellow fluid, but it does not attract iron like the loadstone.
Great indeed is the knowledge both of loadstone and Hematite. Hematite
can be made from loadstone when it has been burnt by a fiery heat.
2. Androdamanta, or Atrodamanta, of extraordinary weight and hardness,
whence its name. This also is black, and exudes a blood-red fluid; it is
found chiefly in Africa, and it attracts iron. To this our own Hematite
from Geuro very closely corresponds, being very hard at the side, which
3. Arabian Hematite, hard, and scarcely exuding moisture on its aqueous
side, sometimes similar to saffron. This answers to ours which is found
at Goslar, and in the Hercynian wood.
4. Elatites, Bloodstone in the rough state; in its finished condition
it is called Miles. It is useful for burns, and more so for all species
of red eruptions.
5. Schistos, of which Schistos Nigrum, or Schiston, another species,
is found in Africa. When broken on the aqueous sides a black-coloured moisture
exudes from the root, and a yellow from the other portion. For the rest,
consult Pliny and Dioscorides on the virtues and efficacies of these species;
where is also to be found the method of burning and corrupting Hematite
; also where Hematite is chiefly found, namely, in red Sinopis, and how
it may be made from loadstone fiercely burnt by an artificial fire, or
by the heat of the earth. Where loadstone exists it is most likely that
Hematite will be also found, and vice versa, which is the case in iron
mines where loadstone is found. Dioscorides also states in the same place
that Hematite is produced naturally among metals in Egypt, which is found
to take place also in the mines of the Bohemian mountains. For the rest,
consult Serapion on the Hematite, s.v. Sedeneg. The ancients consecrated
the Hematite to Mars.
- Rulandus: A flux of Blood from the Anus.
- Rulandus: is Stone.
- Rulandus: is Salt.
- Rulandus: is Vinegar.
- HALCYON, ALCION, ALCEDO, ORNIS ACTAE
- Rulandus: Sea-fowl, Cerylus, Ice-bird.
- Rulandus: The Halcyon Birds, beloved by the goddess Tethaeos.
See Pliny (1. 10, c. 32; 1. 2, c. 49; 1. 18, c. 26) as to the manner of
their pregnancy, the mode in which they prepare their nests, and their
appearance. Compare the very elegant fable in the eleventh metamorphosis
of Ovid, and other writers who have treated concerning these birds. Deservedly
indeed did these most beautiful Halcyon birds partake of the pleasures
of the Nereides, as our Virgil and Theocritus tell us. From these same
Halcyons we derive the name Halcyonium Ceycum from Ceyce, Kingfisher. It
is simply congealed seafoam, internally brittle, stimulating to throat
and eyes. It is at this day called Spuma Maris, Sea-foam, in the workshops.
But it is not the Spuma Salis, or Maris, of which we have before spoken,
though it is related thereto. Spuma Salis, or Froth of Salt, is a wool
or fibre of sea-foam congealed into stones. But Halcyonium is a concrete,
scissile, and spongy Sea Spume. It is so called because the Halcyons make
their nests floating on a calm sea from this spongy and spumous substance,
as the poet says; and Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 8) enumerates five species.
Today we have barely two. There is the Halcyonium Spissum, thick, and of
astringent taste, with a spongy surface, and a foul, fishy smell. It is
found upon the seashore and at Havel, where there are Halcyons, called
by the inhabitants Spur-winged Water-hen, but improperly, and also more
correctly, Kingfisher, because it builds its nest in the cold winter, and
also hatches its young. By the latter name also another bird is signified.
The second species of Halcyon is like the lashes of the eye, spongy, full
of holes like pipes, light, and smelling like sea-weed. These two first
species are included as ingredients in the purifying medicine of women.
In De Medusa Facie, Ovid tells us: Add medicines taken from the nests of
quarrelsome birds. These banish pimples; they are called Halcyons. The
third species is similar to a worm in shape; it approaches purple in colour,
and is called Milesius. It promotes the flow of urine. The fourth species
is not unlike the wool shorn from a sheep, but still hanging together.
It is light, and honeycombed like a sponge. The fifth species has the appearance
of a fungus, without any repellant odour; it is found in the Sea of Marmora,
near the island of Besbica, and on account of its place of origin, because
it is salt and bitter, they call it Halosachnem. It is useful for cleansing
the teeth, and is used in purifying medicine and depilatory unguent. For
the rest, after what manner Halcyonium is prepared by fire and cleaned,
consult Dioscorides and Bulkasis. Pliny (l. 32, c. 5) affirms that Halcyonium
is made from the nests of the Halcyon or Kingfisher, or from a gross spumous
refuse, or from lime, or from sea-wool. He enumerates four species: (1)
thick, ashen, and coarse smelling; (2) soft, lighter, and with an odour
of sea-weed; (3) whiter and worm-shaped ; (4) that which is called Milesius,
and is the best kind; it is porous, like rotten sponge, and approaches
purple in colour. Consult Pliny and Serapion on the virtues of these various
species. Also the third tractatus of Almansor in the chapter on Sea Spume.
All these species are said to be hot and dry. Later authorities have affirmed
that Halcyonium is not Sea Spume, but the manufactured substance which
is called Adarca and Sea Flesh.
- Rulandus: is Copper.
- Rulandus: is Saltpetre.
- Rulandus: is juniper.
- Rulandus: is the Berry of the Juniper.
- Rulandus: is Seed of the herb Rue. Also Grains of Silver remaining
on the hearth.
- Rulandus: is a Fern like the Polypody, or Wall-fern.
- Rulandus: A Hooked or Crooked Instrument.
- HARPAGO PRAEGRANDIS
- Rulandus: A Hooked Or Crooked Instrument of large
- Rulandus: A kind of copper or Brazen Loaves.
- Rulandus: Sal Ammoniac.
- HEINRICUS RUBEUS
- Rulandus: Vitriol calcined to the Red.
- Rulandus: is Honey.
- Rulandus: is a species of black Verarrius (? Weratrum, Hellebore),
putting forth red flowers.
- Rulandus: Viscidity.
- Rulandus: is the Melissa (Bee) of Paracelsus; the Root
of the Sun; the Dandelion; the Balm of Paracelsus.
- Rulandus: is a Gem found in Ethiopia, Africa, and Cyprus,
of a leek-green colour, similar to the emerald, but distinguished by its
red speckles. It is called Heliotrope because, if thrown into a vessel
of water and exposed to the sun, it changes to blood colour, and this is
especially the case with the Ethiopian variety. Concerning the Heliotrope,
the impudence of sorcerers affirms that the unguent made from the sap of
an herb so named will make the person using it invisible. The Heliotrope
is also said to bring riches and good name; it is a safeguard against poisonous
reptiles and bloody fluxes. (See Albertus Magnus and Pliny, 1. 37, c. 10).
- Rulandus: is Coral.
- Rulandus: is the Ring of Solomon which figures in Necromantic
- HEMICYCMUM, HADE
- Rulandus: A mining term.
- Rulandus: The fourth part of a pound.
- Rulandus: Flower of Copper.
- HINNICULA, GENICULA, GUMICULA
- Rulandus: The medicinal root, Valerian.
The variations I conclude to be mistakes of transcribers.
- Rulandus: is Froth Or Scum of Silver.
- HISPANICUM VIRIDEor
- Rulandus: is Verdigris.
- HOLSEBON, HELSATON, HELSEBON
- Rulandus: Names for prepared Common Salt.
- HOMO FUNEM IN BRACHIUM VEL PECTUS INVOLENS
- Rulandus: A man carrying
a rope twined round his arm or waist.
- HOMUNCULI IMAGUNCULAE
- Rulandus: The Minute Image of a Man or Homunculus,
the invisible sidereal man made in the likeness of man. Diminutive men
who have within them the invisible, sidereal man.
- Rulandus: Mercury or Quicksilver of Gold.
- Rulandus: is Jupiter, or Tin.
- HUMOR VITAE
- Rulandus: Vital Moisture, which prevents all living things
from becoming dry, the Radical Humour, the Food and Nourishment of the
- HUMORIS RECEPTACULUM
- Rulandus: A Receptacle of Moisture.
- Rulandus: A Gem which differs from the amethyst, the violet
which is so conspicuous in the latter being paler in the former, pleasing
at first sight, but seeming to grow pale before the eye is satisfied, fading
more quickly than the flower which bears its name (see Pliny, 1. 37, c.
9, and Solinus, c. 33). Hyacinthus and Chrysolites are brought from Ethiopia,
India and Arabia. The Arabians distinguish three species-of a, red, citrine
and antimony-colour, i.e., silver-white. Albertus makes two species of
this class, the first showing white in saffron, watery in red, which he
calls humid; the second sapphiric, which is very yellow and translucid,
and is called the Ethiopian Sapphire Hyacinth. The Hyacinth has the virtue
of promoting sleep; it preserves against poisoned arrows; it raises the
spirits of men; and it fortifies the heart. I omit other qualities which
seem to me magical. In conclusion, the ancients dedicated the Hyacinth
1. Hyacinth showing reddish in golden.
3. Approaching amber.
5. Manufactured and falsified.
- Rulandus: is Luna.
- Rulandus: is an Art of Divination derived from the astrology
of water or from the stars which rule the water and which make known to
men the approach of unusual inundations, high floods, and other phenomena.
- Rulandus: Dread of water, a stye in the eye.
- Rulandus: Red Water-pepper, or Persicaria.
- Rulandus: Hippoglossum, Epiglossum, Epiphyllocarpon, Uvularia,
Boni facia, Lingua Pagana, Bis Lingua
- Rulandus: Names of plants, the Laurel,
the Campanula, the Uvulum, the Gypsophila.