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- AABAM, ABARTAMEN, ACCIB, AIARAZAT
- Rulandus: are all Hermetic equivalents
for lead. See Plumbum and Saturn.Other equivalents in use were the Scape-Goat,
the Dual Chibor, Draiccium, Elevator, Araxat, Alusa, Ruba, Alech, Allonoch,
Alabrig, Alokot, Armic, Amioch, Amitich, Araxat, Azoro, Balamba, Cartistilium,
Koal, Molybdos, Mosquet dei, Molibra, Mosider, Rasas, Rasasa, Rolos, Roe,
Rocli. All these are technical terms, which in themselves have no meaning,
but which were used to signify Lead.
- Rulandus: A counting-board, table or tray, etc.
- ABACUS MAJOR
- Rulandus: A larger table, etc.
- Rulandus: The mire or grease which accumulates on the axle
of a wheel.
- Rulandus: Unslaked lime.
- Rulandus: is the same as Rebis, to wit, the last matter of the
nutriments which are absorbed by the body; that is to say, it is the excrement
of the bowels.
- Rulandus: Albesten, Abesten, and Morago, are Hermetic names
- Rulandus: A cover.
- Rulandus: A separation by means of the superior part. It is
performed after several manners. In the dry region, where there is less
specific gravity, such cleansing can be effected by the hare's foot or
like agents. Sometimes we accomplish separation with a feather, with small
knives, spatulas, etc. At other times, we purge in a narrow bag, with twigs,
and with wooden, iron, and bristly substances.
- Rulandus: is exaltation by means of successive lustrations,
washing away the impure refuse, and reducing the matter to a pure state.
It is also called Imbibition and Cohobationor digestion.
- Rulandus: Cleansing.
- Rulandus: is Alum; also called Asfor.
- ABOIT or
- Rulandus: is White Lead. The same thing is signified
by Alkarad, Almachabar, and Alsiden.
- ABRIC, KIBRIT and
- Rulandus: are names of Sulphur.
- Absorbent Earth
- Chalk, marble, and clays. No specific formulas. Generally carbonates, silicates, and
- ACACIA FERREA
- Rulandus: An iron spoon.
- Rulandus: is Alum-water; called also Fefcol.
- Rulandus: is Vinegaror sour substances.
- Rulandus: is Salt; called also Alet.
- ACAMECH or
- Rulandus: is the scoria or refuse of Silver.
- Rulandus: is Cinnabar or Red Lead; called also Azemasor.
- Rulandus: is Soot; called also Araxos.
- Rulandus: is Jupiteror Tin; called also Alkain and Alomba.
- Rulandus: is Tinsel; called also Aurichalcum, properly Orichalcum,
which is the brass of the ancients. Accatem signifies the same.
- Rulandus: is Indian tutty; called also Alcordine.
- Any substance which is slightly acidor turning sour.
- Rulandus: A vessel for vinegaror a cup-shaped vessel,
holding as much as would an eggshell.
- Acetated Earths, Metals, Etc.
- Acetates (C2H3O2).
- Acetous Acid
- Impure Acetic Acid from vinegar.
- Referring to vinegaror to a compound made from vinegar, as in "acetum
- ACETUM AMINEUM
- Rulandus: White vinegar. Acetum also signifies sour
wine, and in this sense Acetum Amineum would be sour white wine, wine of
Aminaea, which was distinguished for vine culture.
- ACETUM PHILOSOPHORUM
- Rulandus: is Philosophical Vinegar, that is, Virgin's
Milkor Mercurial Water, in which metals are dissolved. One of its Hermetic
names was Sophic Hydor. According to Theophrastus, the Philosophical Vinegar
is the Chemist's Vitriol-water, but the Turba states that it is the water
of mercury which dissolves gold. Others affirm that Philosophical Vinegar
is that which is made from fresh shells of tortoises by sublimation and
- ACETUM RADICALE
- Rulandus: is Radical Vinegaror Vinegar distilled
from its proper radix
or matrix. It is also called dissolvent water.
- ACETUM RADICATUM
- Rulandus: or Radicated Vinegar signifies in some authors
that most sharp liquor of vinegar which remains at the bottom of the retort,
after the phlegmatic part has been evaporated. It is made by distillation
in the retort out of the crystals of the dregs of vinegar. Or good vinegar,
made from wine, may be placed in a retort, distilled gently by a moist
heat, often poured back upon its caput mortuum, and dissolved in dung,
after which it must be finally distilled, when that which is left may be
taken and liquefied in a strong fire. The result is radicated vinegar.
- Acid Air (Priestley)
- Hydrogen Chloride (HCl).
- Rulandus: The Agate, first found in Sicily, near the river
of that name, and afterwards in other localities, as testifies Pliny, 1.
37 c. 10. There are various species, each bearing separate names: Jaspachates,
Ceradhates, Sardachates, Haemachates, Leucachates, Dendrachates, the veins
of which are like unto minute trees; Autachates, which, when burnt, gives
forth fragrance of myrrh; Coralloachates, distinguished by a golden speckling,
after the manner of the sapphire; this variety is found in Crete. Agates
are a safeguard against the bite of the spider, and eagles carry them to
their nests to defend their fledglings against venomous animals. They allay
thirst and strengthen sight. Concerning the rest, consult Pliny in the
place cited, who also relates that various impressions of figures appear
in agates; in some, for example, may be seen rivers, woods, cattle, beasts
of burden, herds, war-chariots, minute statues, and the furniture or ornaments
of horses. In particular, he relates (1. 37, c. 1) how Pyrrhus had an agate
gem in which could be seen Apollo and the nine Muses, with their insignias.
I myself have beheld a gem belonging to a nobleman, which, however, was
not a true agate, but when the blemishes had been dispersed, it exhibited
a rustic and a complete plough. I found also another at Albion Silicem,
near the gate of Tangra, wherein appeared the likeness of a wolf or a lion,
near a half-rose, so clearly cut by nature as though the work had been
done by a jeweller. Most credible truly are those things of Pliny when
writing of the impressions upon this kind of stone.
- Acid of Ants
- Formic Acid (HCOOH).
- Acid, Nitri Phlogistic
- See Nitrous Air.
- Acid of Amber
- Succine Acid (C4H6O4). Also written HOOCCH2CH2COOH
- Acid of Apples
- Malic Acid (C4H6O5).
- Acid of Arsenic
- Arsenic Acid (H3AsO4).
- Acid of Barberry
- Malic Acid.
- Acid of Benzoin
- Benzoic Acid (C6H5COOH).
- Acid of Borax
- Boric Acid (H3BO3).
- Acid of Burning Sulphur
- Sulfurous Acid (H2SO3).
- Acid of Four Spar
- Hydrofluoric Acid (mixed usually with silicon fluoride) (HF; SiF4).
- Acid of Lemons
- Citric Acid (C6H8O7).
- Acid of Milk
- Lactic Acid (C3H6O3).
- Acid of Milk-Sugar
- Mucic Acid (COOH(CHOH)4COOH).
- Acid of Molybdaena
- Molybdic Acid (H2MoO4).
- Acid of Nitre
- Nitric Acid (HNO3).
- Acid of Phosphorus
- Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4).
- Acid of Salt
- Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). (Acidum Salis
- Acid of Sea-Salt
- Hydrochloric Acid, aloneor in a compound (i.e., the Cl radical).
- Acid of Sorrel
- Oxalic Acid (COOH COOH).
- Acid of Sugar
- Oxalic Acid (COOHCOOH). Also written (COOH)2.
- Acid of Tamarinds
- Tartaric Acid (C4H6O6).
- Acid of Tartar
- Tartaric Acid.
- Acid of Urine
- Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
- Acid of Vinegar
- Acetic Acid (CH3COOH).
- Acid of Vitriol
- Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)
- Acidium Aereum
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
- Acidium Mephiticum
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
- Acidium Pingue
- J.F. Meyer's hypothesized "fatty acid."
- Acidium Sacchari
- Oxalic Acid (COOH COOH).
- Acid Vitriolated Tartar
- Potassium Hydrogen Sulphate (KHSO4).
- Rulandus: Steel.
- Rulandus: A lupine, wolf's-beanor horse-bean.
- Rulandus: is Red Coral.
- Rulandus: Glass.
- Rulandus: A needle.
- Rulandus: Saltpetre.
- Rulandus: in Arabic Subedhig, in Latin Adamas (Pliny, 1. 37,
c. 4), the diamond, which is found both apart from gold and in gold, contrary
to the opinion of the ancients, who knew it only as native in gold among
the metals of Aethiopia. But for the better understanding of this subject,
observe the ensuing scheme, which we have elaborated out of Pliny in part,
and in part from other authorities.
Not found in gold, and of this there are two species.
The Indian diamond, not having its birth in gold, is known by its translucid
crystal colour and sex-angular sides; it is either cone-shaped at one end
or else it has the form of a lozenge; it is sometimes as large as a hazel.
This species is said by Serapion to approximate to the colour of Sal Ammoniac.
The Arabian diamond, likewise not found in gold, is smaller than the
Native in the most Perfect Gold.
I. The Greek stone called Cenchron, because it is the size of a millet
II. Macedonian; generated in gold of Philippi; like the seed of cucumber
III. Cyprian; found in Cyprus; approaching brass in colour; most efficacious
IV. Having the splendour of iron sideritis (that is, according to Pliny,
a precious stone; according to others it is loadstone ; and again it is
the plant ironwort); surpassing the others in weight, but differing from
them in nature; can be broken by blows, and pierced by another diamond.
The two last are degenerate, and scarcely deserve their name.
The best diamonds are impervious to blows on an anvil, which they repel,
so that even the anvil bursts asunder, while they themselves leap away
invulnerable. And inasmuch as the diamond is indescribably hard, it contemns
and conquers fire, nor has ever been consumed thereby. Whence, from its
indomitable life and strength, it has the name *** among the Greeks.
That herb which is mentioned by Pliny (1. 24, c. 17), which cannot be
torn up, was also called adamant. The stone, however, can be shattered
by the fleshor rather by the warm blood of a young goat; more especially
when the goat has first drunk wine or eaten rock parsley and mountain skirwort.
For the above reasons, diamonds are much in request among lapidaries for
cutting and shaping gems and other substances, for which purpose they ought
to be mounted only in iron. Other metals they will by no means tolerate,
while by lead, wonderful to say, they are themselves dissolved.
Furthermore, the diamond is so hostile to the loadstone that it will
not permit iron to be attracted in its neighbourhood, and if a magnet at
close quarters should have attracted a piece of iron, the approach of a
diamond will cause it to lose its hold.
In short, the diamond binds the magnet and strips it of its virtues.
Oh, how wonderful is God in all His works! For the rest, the diamond irritates
venomous animals, drives away frenzies, lemures, incubi, and succubi; it
makes men strong and lively, and is for this reason called anachitis (that
It prevails against contentions and quarrels, and cures viscous fluxes. Consult Serapion
and Evax. Some will have that the diamond is cold and dry in the fourth
degree, others, on the contrary, that it is hot and dry, inasmuch as it
is mixed with warming medicines. Did the matter receive investigation,
doubtless diamonds would be found in our mines, as they have been found
in times past: witness Pliny on the authority of Metrodorus Scepsius. In
Bohemia stones of excellent quality are still seen, which surpass Oriental
diamonds in shape and lustre. Consult Solinus, De Adamante, c. 55. The
ancient astrologers referred the diamond to the Moon.
- ADAMAS ACUMINATUS
- Rulandus: A four-sided diamond point.
- ADAMAS QUADRATUS PLANUS
- Rulandus: A flat square diamond.
- Rulandus: A kind of bright stone.
- Rulandus: A species of tartar; a kind of wine-stone or kidney-stone.
(Wine-stone, Germ. = Tartar.)
- ADARCES, ARTIS
- Rulandus: According to some this is a marine flesh,
a spongy growth, a froth or efflorescence, a congealed saliva having birth
in sea-shallows, especially of Cappadocia and Galatia. The Indian species
is found among reeds and cane-brakes on the shore. It has similar qualities
to the substance called Halcyon. It was termed formerly Pericalamite and
Calamoch. Some physicians make use of these ridiculous substances while
they despise more noble things. They have even gone so far as to invent
obscure names for it, which would be a puzzle to Oedipus himself. Some
having written as follows: Take the fat of the deformed child and the tears
of the vine of Dionysius. Who shall understand this save Oedipus? Who shall
quickly interpret the deformed child to be the she-bear, and the gum of
the vine of Dionysius to be the gum of the ivy? The Adarces here referred
to must be distinguished from the true Adarces or Oysters. It is a sort
of thick, salt scum which collects about reeds in marshy places. Its proper
name is Adarca, but this Rulandus confuses with the oyster, and says that
its power in diseases is declared by Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 84) and by Pliny
(1. 32, c. 6), who represents it as coming into existence around tender
reeds amidst the spume of fresh water and sea water, and accredits it with
- Rulandus: is Orpiment.
- Rulandus: is the spume or foam of sea water.
- Rulandus: To augment; but also used as an equivalent of temperare,
to combine in due proportion, to keep within bounds.
- Rulandus: Addition, increase.
- Rulandus: Sour milk.
- Rulandus: Fresh skimmed milk.
- Rulandus: is our interior and invisible man, who raises up in
our minds the image or archetypes of all those things which our visible
and exterior man copies and forms with his hands. Each works after his
own nature, the invisible thin; unseen, the sensible, under form sensible,
those things which are within the dominion of the senses.
- Rulandus: A fluid in its final distillation.
- Rulandus: with its equivalents Aiohenec and Altohonec, signifies
- Rulandus: Another term for sour milk.
- ADHO or
- Rulandus: Milk.
- Rulandus: Mercury.
- ADIBISI or
- Rulandus: The tortoise, also tortoise shell.
- ADIDACHOS, ADIDE ALARCOS, ADIDA LARCHOS
- Rulandus: Various terms for
"mixed with lime", slaked.
- Rulandus: Ammoniac.
- ADMI SURAB
- Rulandus: Earth.
- Small, circular vessels with a necked opening and a spout opposite. They were connected
between the distilling head and the receiver.
- Rulandus: Water in which red-hot iron has been plunged.
- Rulandus: Young man.
- Rulandus: A weight of four pounds.
- Rulandus: Metallic salt, Cappadocian salt.
- Rulandus: Garden Saffron.
- Rulandus: is green atrament ; also blue sulphate of copper.
- ADROP, AZAR, AZANE
- Rulandus: A kind of stone.
- Rulandus: Signifies urine, but also lotion, fountain, etc.
- A union or combination into one.
- ADVERSA VENAE PARS
- Rulandus: Against the grain, literally, against
the direction of a current; hence, opposition in general.
- Ad Siccum
- To dryness, as in evaporation to dryness.
- Rulandus: Equals breath, breeze, spirit, wind, weather.
- AERARII LAPIDES
- Rulandus: Natural copper stones.
1. Black scissile copper ore in which are natural plates of copper.
2. Ore containing natural green chrysocolla.
3. Ore containing natural blue chrysocolla.
4. Scissile ores in which is interspersed copper of a golden, ruddy,
blue, purple, violetor black colour.
5. Scissile ore, having seams of gold-coloured copper.
6. Ore containing seams of copper like the purest lead ore.
7. Cuprine scissile slate, burnt in the open air.
9. Burnt in the open air, afterwards melted out, and the dross separated.
10. Small globular slate-stones, perfectly circular, hard and heavy,
of different sizes. Also found among copper quartz, with an ashy surface,
as if composed of fine sand; if broken with a hammer, they are like silver
or ash-coloured pyrites inside. Sometimes copper and some times silver
is melted out of them.
11. Very hard, small pebbles, showing ruddy in black; found in scissile
copper ore, like the kidneys of animals; when broken, they are of a deceptive
colour, showing rich cuprine hues, but if searched with fire they possess
no metallic quality.
12. Sterile ore, found beneath copper ore, showing white in ash-colour.
13. Primary masses melted out of rude copper.
14. Secondary, in which silver or gold are still present, which are
sold to masters of laboratories for the separation of the silver and copper.
15. Crumbling or spongy masses, out of which, when lead is added, silver
can be extracted.
16. Masses of silver and lead from which copper has been separated.
17. Copper containing silver combined with lead.
18. Copper, of fine quality, free from torrefied, crumblingor cloven
19. Copper masses free from all other metal.
20. Sharp-pointed ore stones produced in torrefying masses of crumbling
21. Copper nuggets full of sharp points. Also layers of sharp-pointed
22. Sharp-pointed nuggets of copper and lead, produced in the fusion
of masses of ore.
23. Sharp-pointed pieces from nuggets which have been once subject to
24. Fused copper, containing gold.
25. Fused copper, containing silver. .
26. Fused copper, containing both gold and silver.
27. Tinged with magnesia. White copper.
28. Tinged with metallic cadmia. Yellow copper.
29. Gold-coloured copper.
30. Flattened copper wire out of which garlands or wreaths are made.
31. Copper showing flaxen colour in red colour.
32. Copper showing swarthy in red.
33. Copper tinctures with gold-colour by chemical art. Alchemical gold.
34. Gilded copper.
35. Copper coloured silver by chemical art. Alchemical silver.
36. Copper mixed with white lead.
37. Cremated copper.
38. Copper fused with white lead. Manufactured bell-metal.
39. Copper alloy, containing equal parts of copper and silver. Cobalt.
40. Copper fused in iron pipes. Finger-shaped pieces of copper. Used
41. Copper reduced to granules; vulgarly called granulated copper.
42. Flower of copper, given off from incandescent masses of copper;
in appearance like millet seed.
43. A more minute kind, given off from molten crucibles, like flying
44. True flower of copper, given off spontaneously from red-hot crucibles.
Very fine Cyprian copper dust.
45. Baked copper, hardened with hammers.
46. Scales of copper, beaten out by the hammer.
47. Most pure scales of copper, with which potters colour their vases.
Brown copper, found useful in all coppersmiths' work.
48. Copper melted into the form of globules. Coarsely granulated copper.
49. Copper filings.
50. Plates of Copper, called sometimes by an Italian name, batitura.
51. Copper wire. .
52. Gilt copper wire.
53. Silvered copper wire.
54. Copper wire overlaid with white lead.
55. Black refuse, separated in the first melting, from copper ore.
56. Metal extracted from copper ore which is once fused and separated
from its refuse.
57. The same, but melted up to the sixth time, then finally baked, and
separated from its first and second refuse.
58. Yellow copper thread. Copper wire.
59. The first recrement of red colour is the material of those pitchers
out of which we usually drink mustor unfermented wine.
60. The second recrement, mixed with brass or lead, is called, in our
vernacular, stone, and is again added to the metals in the second melting
when they begin to flow rapidly.
61. The third recrement remains in the furnace, when the copper, in
which silver is still present, flows out. Out of this recrement, when pounded
and prepared for another melting down, iron is extracted.
62. Recrements separated from torrefied copper masses.
63. The first recrements of copper are light.
64. The second are heavier.
65. The third are heaviest of all, and black, blue, purple, and red
in colour. On the surface of the Islebian mountains there is found a red
earthor red ore, with which the copper ore of the mines is mixed in digging
out. Beneath this there are eleven other species of stone, before the object
of mining is attained, i.e., before the copper veins are reached.
1. Granite. Hyalomite.
1A. A hard, rude stone, of earthy colour.
2. Another not so hard, and of ashen hue.
3. Smokestone. Smoky topaz.
3A. A third harder and rougher, and of colour similar to the first.
4. Zechstein, permian limestone.
4A. A fourth, showing swarthy in ash-colour, but more solid than the
5. Smoky topaz.
5A. A fifth, ashen, hard, and rough.
6A. Another, like to the fourth.
7. Another similar to the second, but softer.
8. Another blacker than the seventh, small, and harder.
9. A ninth kind, showing ashen in white, soft, and may be broken like
marl with a penknife.
10. Another of ash-colour, hard and solid as marble.
11. A layer of black horny slate.
11. Showing more black in ash-colour than all the others.
12. Scissile Islebian stone, dark ash-colour, rich in copper. Slate-stone,
rich in copper.
- Aerated Alkali
- Any alkali Carbonate (e.g., K2CO3).
- "Aerated" Compounds (Bergman)
- Carbonates (CO32).
- Aerated Lime
- Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3).
- Aerated Water
- Water containing dissolved carbon dioxide.
- Aer Hepaticus
- Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S).
- Aerial Acid
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Which forms Carbonic Acid, in aqueous solution
- Rulandus: That is, verdigris.
- AERIS SCOBS
- Rulandus: Ordinary copper
- AERIS FLOS
- Rulandus: Metaphorically so called, was termed by the Greeks,
Chalckou Anthos, and is misnamed Calcantum, that is, vitriol, the shoemakers'
black of the Latins, the ignorant believed of old, being deceived by the
similarity of the terms. But Flower of Copper differs among the ancients
and moderns. For the ancients, as appears, denominated Flower of Copper
those purple globules which rise suddenly when the melted copper runs from
the furnace, and is purged from impurity by the sudden sprinkling of clear
water. Of this kind of Flower of Copper Dioscorides speaks (1. 5, c. 43),
and enumerates its medicinal powers and virtues. Among the moderns, however,
the Flower of Copper signifies verdigris. This distinction should be remembered
in comparing ancient and recent authors. It should also be borne in mind
that formerly they intermingled copper scales and Flower of Copper, whence
a new substance was developed which was called Lepis, as appears out of
Pliny. At the present day Flos Aeris is not included in the Pharmacopia.
Concerning its virtues Pliny says (1. 34. c 11): The Flower of Copper is
useful to medicine; verily there is not a mineral throughout all the mines
of so useful a nature as it is. It purgeth the stomach, strengthens the
eyes, remedies hardness of hearing, stayeth bleeding at the nose.
There are two kinds of Copper Scales, namely, dense and light. Of the
first Dioscorides treats (1. 5, c. 44). It is called Copper Slag by the
Germans, but this, which is broad and thin, is produced from copper by
hammering. Dioscorides (l. c.) avers that which is beaten from bars in
the forges of Cyprus, and called Helitinor Hammered, to be the best,
but that which is beaten from poor and vulgar copperor from white copper,
is wholly to be condemned. He leaches further the virtues and the lustration
of Aeris Squama. He makes mention in addition of Stomoma, the fine scales
which fly off in hammering.
There is another stomoma which is the same as the lighter variety of
Aeris Squama, and is mentioned, not by Dioscorides, but by Pliny. It is
called Copperborn by the Germans. And there is yet another stomoma which
is, as it were, slack from the ore and is pierced easily. Yet again, there
is that stomoma which is ferrum purgatum, purissimum, our chalybs, which
It was Pliny (1. 34, c. 2) who first taught that coarse copper scales
differed from Flower of Copper, when he said: Now these scales come by
being driven and smitten off from those bars which they use to forge of
the said masses and lumps of copper, and all these most commonly are found
in the Cyprian forges; herein only is the difference, that the aforesaid
scales are driven forcibly from the masses of copper, whereas the flower
of verdigris fails off by itself. And yet there is a second kind of these
scales, more fine and subtle than any other, to wit, driven and smitten
from the very outside and uppermost part of the bar, and this they call
Stomoma. He adds that both the one and the other are calcined either over
earthen or brazen vessels, and afterwards washed. Finally, he also avers
that the scales made of the white metal are indefinitely less efficacious.
But neither the scales nor the flower are used by our doctors as they were
in the time of Pliny.
- Aerugo (Aeruca) (Rust of Copper)
- See Verdigris.
- AERUGO AERIS
- Rulandus: or Verdigris, which the moderns, as we have
shown, contradictorily call Flower of Copper, is twofold, natural and artificial,
the former being found in metallic Cypriot stones, having some proportion
of copper; upon these the verdigris bursts out as in bloom, and this, though
small in quantity, is the best, and is also found in our copper mines.
Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 45) mentions its varieties, with their proportionate
worth, and the manner in which they are sophisticated.
Concerning artificial verdigris, which is produced upon the surface
of copper when the metal has become sufficiently green, this is of threefold
1. The smooth or scraped, whereof Dioscorides speaks firstly, and shows
after what manner it is made.
2. The vermiculatedor worm-eaten verdigris, which is also duplex,
that which is mineral and that which is made.
The former is the better, and is scraped by itself from the copperstone,
upon which see Pliny (l. 34, c. 12), who disputes at great length as to
whether it be a species of vitriolor chalchitis itself. Great indeed
is the knowledge of verdigris, of the natural above all, of Flower of Copper,
of Chrysocolla, and of Vitriol, that is, true Chalchitis. Do thou, most
excellent reader, well consider it, and judge the erudition of Pliny. Vermiculated
verdigris, of the manufactured kind, and the way of making it, are taught
by Dioscorides and by Pliny.
3. The third species of manufactured verdigris is goldsmiths' verdigris,
which is also treated of by Dioscorides, and this is Santerna, which is
used for alum. Some call it Tinckar or Arabian Borax. Goldsmiths' verdigris
is nothing else but Chrysocolla, on which consult Pliny (1. 33, c. 5; also
1. 34, c. 11 and 12).
All these species answer to Burnt Copper; they are astringent, they
reduce, and heat, which is the case with all kinds of copper rust.
After what manner the rest are burnt, consult Dioscorides. In our own
day similar species of copper rust are largely manufactured in Spain.
The Arabians, if I mistake not, call all the above enumerated species
by the name Zinckar; and these are the species according to Pliny, Dioscorides,
and others. But if we consider deeply, there are some which have not been
distinguished by them, and are set forth in the following tabulation:
Verdigris or Copper Rust is:
Scraped: Natural / Manufactured (1. Scraped; 2. Vermiculate
- Rulandus: Mined
/ Manufactured; 3. Goldsmiths’.
Scissile: Natural, i.e., copper-green. Gold-gluten / Manufactured, goldsmiths’
green, scraped, manufactured copper, green.
The remaining species are distinguished thus:
1. Verdigris, colour of green copper; things dyed with green copper
rust are so named by Martial.
2. Natural verdigris found on copper quartz.
3. A variety from Satberg, of leaden colour, found in rude copper ore.
4. Verdigris found on pure solid copper.
5. Manufactured verdigris.
6. Sublimed or distilled verdigris, used by painters.
- AES USTUMor
- Rulandus: Burnt copper according to Dioscorides
(l. 5, c. 42) is obtained by arranging alternate layers of copper bars
with salt and sulphuror alum, in an earthen vessel. The same author enumerates
other methods, and burnt copper is made in our own day out of copper, sulphur,
and salt. Dioscorides praises the aes ustum of Memphis and Cyprus. It is
astringent, desiccating, restrictive; it reduces, draws out, and cleanses;
and it heals ulcers. It is serviceable in complaints of the eye; it is
a good emetic, when mixed with honey. It is cleansed like Cadmia, and is
regarded as hot and dry in the fourth degree. The scum or excrement of
copper, prepared after the same manner, has the same virtues, in a weaker
degree. Consult Dioscorides as above.
The other species of Copper Ore and Copper are as follows:
1. Pure native copper.
2. Native red copper, unalloyed with other metals, found, clean and
solid, in its own mines, in the Duchy of Mansfield.
3. Mined copper, found in its own veins.
4. Pure copper mined from argentiferous veins at Scheberg.
5. Red Mansfield copper, which contains silver.
6. Red native copper of Suacensis in the Rhetian Alps, which contains
gold within it.
7. Copper of a chestnut brown colour, which adheres like a thin plate
to the hard stone. Solid copper.
8. Of the ordinary colour, in a violet fluor-spar.
9. Of the ordinary colour, intermixed with stony substance.
10. Of its own colour, cleaving to hard stone, which has the glow of
11. Of its own colour, cleaving to a scissile stone. The German context
speaks of a red copper mixed with sulphur on a slate bed; ruddy, solid
12. Thin shavings of copper, in a white flint.
13. Veinlets or fibres of copper in a bright, ruddy stone; a preparation
of a copper ore in a hard stone.
14. A rich vein of copper; a speedy process for pure copper.
15. Rough, native, impure copper.
16. Pure solid copper of Moravia.
17. Natural yellow copper, gold-coloured copper, cleaving to brittle
18. Blue copper, cleaving to brittle stone.
19. Copper, entirely blue.
20. Brownish or violet copper, cleaving to brittle stone.
21. White copper, similar to rude white silver, in a brittle stone;
a rich white copper ore.
22. Black copper ore.
23. Copper ore so abundantly mixed with brittle stone that 100 lbs.
contains 40 lbs. of copper.
24. A natural solid copper of several colours, distinguished into zones
of gold, purple, saffron, flaxen, green, and blue.
25. Friberg copper, allied to black lead, of so many excellent colours
that they shine as if they were transparent.
26. Copper native in white lead, having the brightness of polished gold.
The German version reads, born in black lead, as crystallised tin-ore.
- Aer Urinosum
- Ammonia (NH3).
- Aes cyprium
- Cyprian Brass or Copper.
- Aethiops Mercuriales
- See Athiops Mineralis.
- Aethiops Mineralis (Aethiops Mercuriales)
- Black Mercuric Sulphide (H2S).
- Rulandus: This name is given to a subterranean, invisible, and
sulphureous fire which burns stones into coals similar to asphalt; they
are full of resin and bitumen, and some nations use them instead of coals
or wood, especially spurious sophisticators of metals. Formerly, these
subterraneous fires were to be seen in several places, as, for example,
that called Aetna in Sicily, and another in the Neapolitan Kingdom not
far from Naples. In ancient times the men of those days, wonderstruck as
to what could be the cause of these fires, and after great investigation
being unable to assign it, became so desperate that one among the most
celebrated philosophers, physicists, and doctors, Empedocles, cast himself
headlong into the flames, choosing to be vanquished by shame rather than
by ignorance. Again Caius Plinius delivered himself to suffocation from
the smoke of this fire. Oh insane talents of men, who, whilst they will
be ignorant of nothing, have attempted no labours, so that they can know
nothing, and have nevertheless borne a shameful death, esteeming it better
not to live than not to know that which at the same time they knew to be
transitory! Housewives, when they have done cooking, shut up the fire in
their grate, so that there may be no entrance of air, by which means the
fire dies out, for it can live only in air. But if a draught be admitted
before it is quite extinguished, the flame will revive. In the same way
we must regard volcanoes, whose fires originate in the earth's centre,
which holds them like a grate. They are the air-holes of the earth, by
which the central fires have their nourishment from the atmosphere, and
without which they would be extinguished like the fires in a grate. (An
invisible sulphureous fire in mountains, which turns stones into coal.)
Item. All fused ores are understood by the name Aethna.
- Rulandus: are igneous spiritsor spirit-men, burning in the
midst of flames. They appear in various modes and manners, like burning
fires, live circular coalsor fiery globes; they are also seen amidst
the sulphureous eruptions of volcanoes.
- Rulandus: are Eagle-stones, so called on account of their colour
and their virtue, for without them can no eagle bring forth. For the Eagle-stone
alleviates parturition. It is also called Lapis Erodialis and Lapis Aegreileius.
It is a gem of several species. The first is the Pregnant-stone described
by Dioscorides. When it is shaken another stone can be heard rattling in
its stomach. It is of globular shape, is hollow, like the oak-apple, and
bears another stone within it; this species is found in the vicinity of
the Saale and the Elbe, and especially in that district which we now call
Steuermarch. Very great virtues are possessed by this species; in particular,
it relieves the sense of heaviness experienced by women before child-birth
if the uterus be rubbed with it. The second species of Eagle-stone is that
which is filled with earth, i.e., with white or saffron clay, and this
is the Geodes (full of earth, earthy), a precious stone mentioned by Dioscorides.
Varieties of this sort, containing earth or clay, are found at Dresden
and in Saxony. I have myself seen a species, containing a saffron clay,
on the banks of the Elbe, and another, full of white clay, is met with
in the vicinity of the Saale. The third species is filled with water, and
perspires in a warm place. It is called Enydros; hence those lines of the
"The Enidros pours forth perpetual tears, Which spring like water from
a fountain full ".
Pliny (1. 37, c. 11) and Solinus (c. 40) make special mention of this
species. Says Pliny: The Enydros is always perfectly round; it is white,
and of little weight, but when moved water is seen to flow within it like
the liquid in eggs. And Solinus: The Enydros exudes moisture, as if a spring
of water were contained within it. The fourth species of Eagle-stone is
full of sand and tiny pebbles. The fifth is full of chelonitis, the sixth
of a white lime; this is the variety which I discovered by the Elbe; it
was of oblong shape, very hard, and honeycombed on its surface. I met also
with another species separated from the matrix and of a peculiar shape
similar to the variety described by Pliny (1. 10, c. 3), called Gagates
by other writers, said to be found in the nests of eagles, especially in
those of the bearded eagle, and termed the Pregnant-stone. When struck,
or shaken, another stone can be heard rattling within it. It is not consumed
by fire, a quality it possesses in common with the true Gagates (this is
a species of bitumen), whence the identity of name. Those Eagle-stones,
which are taken from the nests of eagles have the greatest medicinal virtue.
Pliny also pretends (11. 36, c. 27) to distinguish two kinds of Eagle-stones
which are found in the nests of these birds, a male and female, which are
both necessary to the hatching of their eggs. After the same manner, the
eagle places an agate under its unfledged young to protect them from poisonous
reptiles. Pliny otherwise distinguishes four species of Eagle-stone.
1. The small soft African eagle-stone, containing soft white clay, as
in a womb. It is easily crumbled to pieces, and has been regarded as feminine.
It is found at the present day full of yellow clay, and is the Geodis of
2. A variety from Cyprus, similar to the African, but larger and broader,
globular in shape, soft on its surface, easily crumbled, and containing
fine sand and pebbles. Varieties of this sort are also found pregnant with
lime and conchylii.
3. Found near Leucadia, in the island of Taphus, whence it is called
Taphinsius; it is met with in rivers, is white, and round in shape. In
its womb it contains the stone called Callimus, and it is exceedingly soft.
4. A hard Eagle-stone like the oak-apple, found in Arabia, and believed
to be masculine; it contains a reddish stone, also hard, and is much praised
by Dioscorides. This also is familiar to us, and has been previously described.
All species of aetites assist parturition and prevent abortion, as also
Pliny witnesses (1. 36, c. 21). They are to be distinguished from the Echite
which is an herb of the clematis genus; from Echites, a stone spotted like
a viper; and from Echitis, a variety of the last. Consult Pliny as above,
Solinus, c. 40, Serapion, Albertus, Rhasis, and others.
The eagle-stone is also classified as follows:
1. African male aetitis, very hard, black and red in colour, containing
a white crumbling earth.
2. Feminine, from Hildesheimer, mud-coloured, with yellow ochre adhering
to it. This species contains a hard, mud-coloured earth.
3. Another kind, with a loose stone inside it, which sounds when shaken.
4. Hard, ruddy aetites, having an iron-grey stone.
5. Another, from Motteschanus, shaped like the human head, round, and
very hard, having quadrangular, crystalline fluors like adamant.
6. A concave, iron-grey stone, found in iron ore, and containing nothing
but air. The German Druse.
- Generally, any substance in gaseous state.
- Air (Priestley)
- A gaseous substance which could not be liquified by cold.
- Air, Dephlogisticated
- Oxygen (O2).
- Air, Fixed
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
- Air, Hepatic
- Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S).
- Air, Inflammable
- Hydrogen (H2).
- Air, Marine Acid
- Hydrogen Chloride (HCl).
- Air, Mephitic
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
- Air, Phlogisticated
- Nitrogen (N2).
- Air, Vital
- Oxygen (O2).
- Air of Flour Spar
- Hydrofluoric Acid, HF, gas (usually with Silicon Fluoride).
- Air of Vitriol
- Sulphur Dioxide (SO2).
- Rulandus: is Atrament.
- Rulandus: is Froth of Nitre, in Arabic Baurach; or it is
that pseudo-Froth of Nitre which is called Glass-gall by the Germans; or
it is the metallic salt called Cappadocius and Gemma.
- Rulandus: is Soul.
- Rulandus: is Froth or Spume.
- Rulandus: is Glass.
- Rulandus: Mid south-west.
- Rulandus: is Venus.
- Rulandus: is frothy, spumous, etc.
- Rulandus: is Minium, Red Lead, Vermilion.
- Rulandus: is White Lead.
- Rulandus: is Verdigris.
- Rulandus: is our Lead, the unclean body.
- Rulandus: is Prepared Calx.
- AGAR, ALGIT, ALGERIT
- Rulandus: Names of Calx.
- Rulandus: is a metallic vase of copperor iron, two feet high,
and of about the same width. On the top there is a cover which fits it
exactly, and is made in the following manner: A plate of copper is made
in exact correspondence with the capacity of the ahenum (for the sake of
convenience some affirm that a wooden cover may be substituted), and of
circular shape, in the centre of which (when the ahenum is intended for
the reception of only one cuppingglass) a little door is cut, of the exact
size of the vase which is to be placed in the ahenum, and out of which
at the same time it can project a certain distance. On one or the other
side, and near the bottom of the ahenum, another door must be made, through
which the heat can flow under, and more water be supplied to make up for
evaporation. The use of this covered ahenum is manifold in the operations
of the baths.
- Rulandus: is Rock-Saltor Muriate of Soda.
- Rulandus: is Arsenical Sulphur. Also the Eagle.
- Rulandus: is Lead.
- AKIBOT, ALCHIBIT, ALCHINIT
- Rulandus: are names of Sulphur.
- Rulandus: is a sharp-pointed stone. Hence aconite, an herb which
grows on rocks, derives the name it bears. There is another sharp-pointed
stone, with which knives and other instruments are sharpened, and it is
called Whetstone. Of this we have several species-black, white, yellow,
and one which is of a very deep black. Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 93) signalises
the uses of the Naxian Stone which is worn away by the sharpening of instruments
thereon. The species under notice is also called Heraclean and Lydian Stone
; it is the German Touch-stone, which is known to our goldsmiths and is
called Coticula by Pliny (1. 33, c. 8). That stone which is found in Misnia,
and is now used by book-binders, is also a species of cos-stone. There
is, moreover, a variety which is of green colour, and is called Eye-stone,
or Oil-stone, because instruments of various kinds are sharpened upon it
after it has been lubricated with oil. There are additional species which
the reader himself will be able to recall to his mind without further enumeration
- Rulandus: Lydian Stone, Grind-stone, Clinthy Slate, etc.
- Rulandus: Alabaster, from the town of that name in Upper
Egypt, and also from Damascus of Syria. It is a species of marble, and
is familiar to the Venetians. There are three kinds; the first is white
and shining, and is that white alabaster of which in times gone by it was
usual to make the images of saints and -the monuments of the departed.
The second species has black spots. The third is white and ruddy, and is
hence called Onyx, ruddy Alabaster, because it has the tint of human flesh.
It is the species referred to by Dioscorides when he says: Alabaster, also
called Onyx, when burnt with pitch or resin, removes indurations of the
body. For the various uses of the onyx, and concerning the vessels and
boxes for ointment which are made of it, consult Dioscorides (1. 2). At
the present time there are two species found in Germany, in Cheruscis,
not far from Northusia, and in Saxony, near Hildesheim. Pliny (1. 36, c.
7 and 8) says: Alabaster is used for vases containing unguents, and is
medicinally valuable in plasters to be placed over burns and scalds. He
also informs us that its native places are Thebes of Egypt and Damascus
of Syria. There is, however, a useless and inferior species which comes
from Cappadocia, a country of Asia between the Black Seaor rather Pontus,
and Cilicia. Consult also the same writer in the thirteenth chapter of
his thirteenth book of the History of the World.
- Rulandus: is Lead
- ALAFOR, ALAFORT
- Rulandus: Salt of Alkali.
- Rulandus: is a caltrop.
- Rulandus: is a species of white lead.
- ALAHABAR, ALABARI, ALCHONOR, ALLARINOCH, ALHOHONOCH, ALRACHAS, ALASTROB,
ALOMBA, ALOOC, ALLABOR, ALCAMOR
- Rulandus: are all names of Lead. See Abam,
- Rulandus: is a ruddy stone.
- Rulandus: according to some is an oven of the alchemists; according
to others, it is Charcoal.
- Rulandus: is burnt Copper Ore.
- Rulandus: is Ammoniac.
- Rulandus: is semi-vitrified protoxide of lead.
- Rulandus: is Nitric Salt.
- Rulandus: is Salt of Wine.
- Rulandus: is a stone of salt of milk.
- Rulandus: is Arsenic.
- Rulandus: Whiteness; white ashes left by calcination.
- Rulandus: is White Copper or Metallic Ore.
- Rulandus: is Quicklime.
- Rulandus: is Galbanum, a disputed substance, supposed to be
the resinous sap of an umbelliferous plant in Syria. It is referred to
by Pliny and Suetonius.
- Rulandus: That is, Sublimated.
- Rulandus: is Pitch from the bark of the yew. I believe it to
be a substance from which ink is made.
- Rulandus: is Urine.
- Rulandus: is Goldsmith's Brick.
- ALBOTAT, ALFIDASor
- Rulandus: Names of White Lead.
- Rulandus: is Terebinth, Turpentine. It has
other arbitrary names, such as, Albuhen, Altilibat, Albotra, Bora, Debutum,
Helcabatan, Helkaboni, Helcalibat, Helcalidar, Kytram.
- Rulandus: White Lead.
- Rulandus: Pearl-white.
- Rulandus: is White Copper.
- Rulandus: is White Atrament; a contradictory designation because
atramentum is essentially a black liquid.
- Rulandus: Symbolical principle of the Chemists. It is the salt
derived from the ashes of any substance without the limes of the bodies,
and it inheres in all substances whether aqueous or fiery. It may be called
Salt of Ashesor Salt of Limestone.
- Alumina (Al2O3).
- Alcali Volatil
- Ammonium Hydroxide.
- Rulandus: is Sour Milk, otherwise Mercury.
- Rulandus: is prepared Mercury; some will have that it is tartar
; but the special meaning of any writer may be judged easily by the description
of his preparation.
- Rulandus: Mercury prepared as a medicine for the liver.
- Rulandus: according to Avicenna, are long
slender plants, knotted like reeds, which are used as spears by the Arabs.
Some also understand it to be the Guaiacumor Tree of Life of America.
- ALCEBRIS VIVUM, VIVIFIC ALCEBRIS
- Rulandus: is Sulphur. Called also
Alneric, Anerit, Aneric.
- Rulandus: is the separation of the impure from the purer substance.
- Rulandus: is Oil of Juniper, Liquid
Pitch, Arsenic purified by
- Rulandus: is also Oil of Juniper, but especially the dregs
left after distillation.
- Rulandus: is Antimony ; called also Alcofol, Alfacio.
- Rulandus: is Sour Milk.
- Rulandus: is a most subtle powder.
- Rulandus: is Stybium or Antimony.
- ALCOHOL OF WINE
- Rulandus: (sometimes termed Distilled Wine) is thus
called when every superfluity of wine has been so purged away that the
whole is consumed and neither dregs nor moisture remain in the retort.
The most subtle powder that can be made. If alcohol of wine be added, it
is rectified, distilled wine.
- Alcohol Sulphuris
- Carbon Disulfide, CS2; not an alcohol at all, but a volatile liquid that
- Usually spirit of wine (CH3CH2OH) (sometimes any very fine
- Rulandus: is crushing or corrosion.
- Rulandus: is Vinegar.
- Rulandus: is Aurichalcum, i.e., Brass, Bronze.
- Rulandus: has been most incongruously interpreted by some writers
to be a powder ground to extraordinary fineness by a brass or iron mortar;
but their error is made sufficiently plain by the fact that Paracelsus
speaks in many places of alcool of wine, which he uses for rectified Aqua
fortis, and this has nothing in common with a powder. The alcool of any
bodies whatever is therefore nothing else but the purer and cleaner part
separated from the impure. As regards the Paracelsian Alcool of Antimony,
it is nothing else, according to this author, than antimony not merely
ground with pestle and mortar, but exalted into its volatile condition
without change in the natural colour. And it is needful that this should
be done by the exclusive conduct and guidance of fire and heat, in such
a manner that after it has been ground in the vulgar fashion, it shall
be disintegrated further by sublimations, which are the philosophical pestle
and mortar. Paracelsus also teaches elsewhere that such sublimation is
to be performed without a caput mortuum, i.e., without leaving a residuum.
It is further certain that no refuse must be present before sublimation.
This sublimation of stibium is wholly indispensableor frustrated energy
and vain labour will be spent upon the flowers of antimony. Most of those
who have attempted to analyze the preparation of Paracelsian substances
have failed over this arcanum. By vulgar trituration the substances evaporate
into white smoke, and it is easier to ascend into heaven than to produce
in this way the citrine or ruby flowers, as they have proved to their own
cost. The operation is not vulgar and the philosophical artifice is known
to few. But it is made known to the Sons of the Doctrine. The sublimation
is performed by a carefully tempered fire, so that the powder of antimony
may be liquefied as little as possible, but at the same time may ascend
until the flower of the powder is seen sticking to the walls of the furnace.
- Rulandus: is Copper, burnt till it is fine as powder.
- Rulandus: is a kind of stone having spar like silver. Called
- Rulandus: is Crude Butter. Called also Alumbair.
- ALCUBRITH, ALCURor
- Rulandus: are all names for Sulphur.
- Rulandus: is Vitriol.
- Rulandus: is Mercury.
- Rulandus: is three-footed. Cf. Tripod.
- Rulandus: is a gem mentioned by Pliny (1. 37, c. 10), which
is like crystal or clear water; and he shows that this crystalline substance,
which is as large as a horse bean, is found in the gizzard of poultry,
or, as Albertus has it, of a castrated cock. It is found after the bird
has attained the age of four years. It renders the possessor rich and of
warlike aspect. And they report that Milo of Crotona was made invincible
by such an Alectoria. It conciliates girls and quenches thirst. See also
- Rulandus: is Flower of Salt.
- Rulandus: is Burnt Lead.
- Rulandus: is Mercury.
- A type of distillation apparatus.
- Rulandus: or Capitellum (helmet) is a vessel set over the
retort to receive and collect vapours.
The Alembic is of two kinds, beaked or curved, and without beak. The
first transmits the resolved vapours by a channel or neck to the receiving
vessel. The second, which is without a beak or conduit, is used in sublimations,
and in some cases is pierced at the top for the passage of the rising vapours.
- Rulandus: is Salt of Mercuryor Philosophical Salt, Salt
of Art, and Key of Art.
- Alembroth, Salt of
- A double Chloride of Mercury and Ammonium, Hg2(NH4)2Cl4.H2O;
See White Precipitate
- ALEMBROTH DESSICATUM
- Rulandus: Dessicated Alembroth, is by some called
Salt of Tartar, the Magistery of Magisteries.
- Rulandus: is compounded Saltor manufactured Salt.
- Rulandus: or Altingat, is Flower of Copper.
- A remedy or preservative against poison.
- Rulandus: is a medicine alchemically prepared.
- Rulandus: is the washing of lead.
- Rulandus: is Distillation.
- Rulandus: is Dross of Gold.
- Rulandus: is ashen.
- Rulandus: is Burnt Copperor Plates of Venus-Copperplate.
- Rulandus: is Sal Ammoniac. Among its other Hermetic names
are Salmiax, Alacap, Alorap, Alfol, Alisteles, Alcob, Azonec, Anoxadic,
Aquila, Butrum, Alizeles.
- Rulandus: is Brick, burnt Clay ; also Earthenware.
- Rulandus: is impure Protoxide of Zinc.
- Rulandus: is a reed, according to the German context, but it is
- Rulandus: is Nitreor Saltpetre.
- Algaroth, Powder of
- Antimony Oxychloride, SbOCl, an emetic named after its inventor, a Vittorio Algarotti.
- Rulandus: Coals.
- ALGERIAE, ALGERIE
- Rulandus: is Lime.
- Alicant Kelp
- Crude Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3).
- Rulandus: is Confection, Composition.
- Rulandus: is a sand found in auriferous metals, out of which lead
- Rulandus: is cold and dry earth. It is called in Arabic Boneza
Arles calls it Salmiac.
- Rulandus: is Sal Ammoniac.
- 1,2-Dihydroxyanthraquinone, C14H8O4, a red dye long
extracted from Rubia tinctorium (madder), synthetically prepared from Anthracene in
the 19th century.
- Alizarin , Black
- Naphtharazine, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, C10H6O4,
a black dye.
- Alizarin , Blue (Anthracene blue)
- A Dihydroxyanthraquinone Quinoline, C17H9O4.
- Alizarin , Bordeaux (Brown)
- 1,2,3-trihydroxyanthraquinone, C14H8O5, a dye derived
- Alizarin , Red
- Alizarin Sodium Sulfonate, NaC14H7O7S, the Sodium Salt
of the Sulfonic Acid of Alizarin; an acid-base indicator that changes from red to yellow
as the pH is raised through 5.5
- Alizarin , Yellow
- Sodium p-Nitraniline Salicylate, C13H10NO5, an
acid-base indicator that changes from yellow to purple as the pH is raised through 11.1
- Alk. Min. Vitriol
- Sodium Sulphate (Na2SO4).
- An alchmeical term invented by Paracelsus to denote a universal solvent.
- Alkahest Glauber
- See Fixed vegetable alkali (K2CO3)
- Rulandus: is fine powder.
- Alkahest of Reapour
- See fixed vegetable alkali (K2CO3)
- Alkahest of Van Helmot (Glauber's Alkahest)
- concentrated Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
- Any substance which is slightly alkaline or turning alkaline
- Alkali, Caustic
- Hydroxides (OH). See Alkaline Air, Fossil Alkali, Marine Alkali, Mineral Alkali, Vegetable Alkali, Volatile Alkali.
- Alkali, Common Mineral
- Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3 . 10H2O)
- Alkali, Concrete Volatile
- Ammonium Carbonate (NH4)2CO3)
- Alkali, Fossil
- Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)
- Alkali, Marine
- Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)
- Alkali, Mild
- Carbonates (CO32)
- Alkali, Vegetable, Fixed
- Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
- Alkali, Vegetable, Mild
- Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
- Alkali, Volatile
- Ammonia (NH3)
- Alkali of Soda
- Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)
- Alkali of Tartar
- Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
- Alkali of Wine Lees
- Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
- Alkali Veg. Saltium
- Potassium Chloride (KCl)
- Alkali Veg. Vitriolat
- Potassium sulphate (K2SO4)
- Alkaline Air (Priestly)
- Ammonia gas (NH3)
- Rulandus: is the vase or vessel.
- Rulandus: is Oil of a Hen.
- ALKALID, ALKES, ALCOB
- Rulandus: are Burnt Copper.
- Rulandus: is Vitriol from the minesor fluid Vitriol, calcinated
in aludal. With others Alkali is a pebble of salt, derived from pounded
limestones, extracted by moisture and coagulated by the dissipation of
moisture. Above all alkali signifies the elaboration of the essential form
of the said stone, freed from what is impure and separated from its body.
The term is also ascribed to calcined and diffused substances when they
are reduced to a solid consistency, as when common salt is dissolved by
moisture and again coagulated. Also when pearls are calcined entire, are
dissolved, and again coagulated, they are in themselves magisteria, and
are called alkali symbolically.
- Alkalized Nitre
- See fixed nitre
- Rulandus: Name of the philosopher.
- Rulandus: Sometimes Burnt Copper, sometimes an aromatic substance,
- Rulandus: is Mercuryor a species of inky matter.
- Rulandus: is a gourd. In medicine it is a cupping-glass, and
in alchemy a Cucurbite.
- Rulandus: is green Duenechor Antimony.
- ALKASA or
- Rulandus: is goldsmith's brick.
- Rulandus: is Antimony.
- ALKIBRIC, ALKIBERT, ALGIBIC, ALKIBIC, ALCHABRIC
- Rulandus: are names
of Living Sulphur.
- Rulandus: is Woad Ashesor woad-colour Ashes.
- Rulandus: is Smoke or Coals.
- Rulandus: is Liquid Pitch.
- Rulandus: is Tartar. Theophrastus says that it is the purer substance
of a thing separated from the impure. Thus Alcool of Wine is aqua ardens
rectified and cleansed, the best and purest, the most subtle and celestial.
- Rulandus: is the finest Lead of the mines; Lapis Lazuli; Antimony.
- Rulandus: is Camphor.
- ALKY OF LEAD
- Rulandus: is the soft substance of lead.
- Rulandus: is the powder of the basilisk.
- Rulandus: is a certain species of manufactured salt.
- See Adopters
- Rulandus: is Water.
- Rulandus: is a stone like amber.
- Rulandus: is Synopide, like red grains (cf. Synephites).
- Rulandus: is a copper bolusor laton, which see. A red soil
or clay, used as a lubricant by wheelwrights. Also a lotion.
- ALMAKIST, ALMAKANDA
- Rulandus: That is Litharge.
- Rulandus: is Litharge.
- Rulandus: is Dross of Gold and Cathmia of Gold, which see.
- Rulandus: is Litharge of Silveror Argyritis.
- ALMARCHAT and
- Rulandus: signify Silver Litharge.
- ALMARGEN, ARMALGOL, ALMARAGO
- Rulandus: Names of Coral.
- Rulandus: is Ash of Litharge.
- Rulandus: is a Mine of Copper.
- Rulandus: is Mercury, the Mineral Stone.
- Rulandus: is Copper.
- Rulandus: is Solis Gemmae ( Solis Gemmae is a kind of glittering
precious stone, mentioned by Pliny. But the German version seems to refer
to Sal Gemma, which see.).
- Rulandus: s Dross of Goldor Refuse of Gold.
- Rulandus: is prepared Sal Ammoniac; called also Asanon, Meradum,
Almisadu, Amizadir; it is the German Salmiak.
- Rulandus: is Verdigris.
- ALNEC, ALLENEC, ALKALAP, ALETH, ALMIBA, ASEREBRAN, ASEBUM
are names of Tin.
- ALOE, EPATICUM ALOE
- Rulandus: A medicine for the liver.
- Rulandus: is the cloth which covers the Vase.
- ALOHAR, ALOHOC, ALOSOHOC, ALOSOT
- Rulandus: are names of Quicksilver.
- ALOS, ALO, ALIX, ALMELE, ALEC, ALKALAT, ALKALAC
- Rulandus: are names
- Rulandus: Flower of Salt, in use among dyers.
- Rulandus: Ashen.
- Rulandus: is a species of Alum.
- Rulandus: is burnt Copperor Calcecumenon, which is burnt
- Rulandus: is the Red Stone, to wit, blood from men's veins.
- Rulandus: is the South-west or South.
- ALTARIS, ANTARITand
Rulandus: are names of Quicksilver.
- Anything which alters of changes the state of another
- Rulandus: is Orpiment. Called also Alernet and Albimec.
- Rulandus: Burnt Copper.
- Rulandus: is Dross of Lead.
- Rulandus: is Vitriol.
- Rulandus: is Flower of Copper.
- Rulandus: is a glass vessel used in sublimation.
- A unit of a mutiple-head, earthenware distilling apparatus. Usually used for
- ALUDIT, ANTARIC, AZOMSES, AZON
- Rulandus: Names of Mercury.
- Rulandus: is redness.
- Rulandus: is the pure body of Jove. Called also Aluach.
- Rulandus: is boatlike, otherwise a vessel shaped like a boat.
Alueus minor is a vessel of like shape but smaller size.
- Rulandus: Called also Vabs, is Salt of Alkali.
- Potassium Aluminum Sulfate, KAl(SO4)2.12H2O;
more recently the term also includes salts in which Sodium or Ammonium substitute for
- Mixed double salts of Aluminum Sulphate with Potassium, Sodiumor Ammonium Sulfate.
(Potassium salt, when pure, was most commonly called "Alum."). (Al2(SO4)3
. K2SO4 . 24H2O); (Al2(SO4)3
. (NH4)2SO4 . 24H2O);
(Al2(SO4)3 . Na2SO4 .
- Rulandus: is burnt lead.
- Aluminum Sulphate (Al2(SO4)3.
- Rulandus: is known to all, and signifies Mercury, because it
dissolves. It is the best of all crystals. Its species are various, of
which some are called technically Jamenum, Roccum, Scissum, Rotundum, Zacharinum,
Debelgamo, Genoese Nitre, Alum from the mines, Fusible Alum, Scaly Alum,
Liquid Alum, Preserved Alum, Common Alum, Alum Placodes, Burnt Alum, Sodden
Alum, Rock-Alum, and Native Alum.
Albertus distinguishes four broad species-Simpleor Common Alum; Black,
White, and one which he describes fully in his book on Minerals. But here
follow the several species of Alum.
1. Alum of the mines.
2. Liquid, clay-like, pale yellow Alum, from the Island of Elba in the
Mediterranean. When handled it becomes so soft that it almost flows.
3. Natural liquid yellow Alum like a soft butter; it is found in the
lead mines near Naples.
4. Grey liquid Alum from the same place.
5. White scaly Neapolitan Alum.
6. Very white scissile Neapolitan Alum.
7. Yellow Neapolitan Alum.
8. Scissile Alum, mixed with black dye, and redolent of sulphur when
burnt. This also is from Naples.
9. Fibrous Neapolitan Alum.
10. Globular Neapolitan Alum.
11. A Neapolitan variety, found in layers, having wide crusts.
12. Manufactured saccharine Alum.
13. Square-shaped Alum of a violet colour.
14. Bright reddish Neapolitan Alum.
15. Manufactured Alum, having the appearance of fluorspar. It is produced
by placing any igneous crux (untranslatable in this connection) into deep
vessels, to which it adheres as if consubstantial with them, and crystallises
in four-sided figures.
16. Pure bright digested Alum, found in Thuringia at Lobestein.
17. Venetian Alum which shows reddish in grinding, but is otherwise
18. Common Alum.
19. Burnt Alum.
20. Bright melted Alum of Dibanus, from which a sort of inky copperas
21. A variety of the above, combined with Atrament, and found in a moist
22. Alum combined with Atrament excocted from Lye.
23. Pure white cocted Alum from Dibanus; this is pellucid and free from
24. Bohemian Alum.
25. Alum of Misnense, mined in Burgos and Heringisdorf.
26. Alum of Tolpha, first mined in Italy during the pontificate of Pius
27. Veins of Alum mixed with Persulphate of Iron (misy).
28. An exceedingly white earth, out of which Neapolitan Alum is melted.
29. Rocca stone, from which Alum is derived.
30. Earth in the black ash of Dibanus, from which Alum is excocted.
31. A vein of globular Alum found on the top of the mountains near Naples.
32. A black Lobestenian vein, wherein there is a white natural Alum.
- Rulandus: A name of Antimony.
- ALUMEN ALAP
- Rulandus: Possibly Clay-like Alum.
- ALUMEN ALAFRAN
- Rulandus: Final State.
- ALUMEN ALAFURIor
- Rulandus: Native Soda.
- ALUMEN ALBEDANE
- Rulandus: Zacharine Alum.
- ALUMEN ALBUM
- Rulandus: i.e., Learto (unexplained).
- ALUMEN ALKORIand
- ALUMEN ALKALI
- Rulandus: Saltpetre.
- ALUMEN ALEXANDRINUM
- Rulandus: Sodaor Natron.
- ALUMEN BULGANUM
- Rulandus: The German Eyestone, a species of Varnish.
It is red and transparent as mastic.
- ALUMEN CALCILIEN
- Rulandus: Arabian Azubor Alum.
- ALUMEN CREPUM
- Rulandus: is tartar obtained from good wine.
- ALUMEN DE ALEP
- Rulandus: is Greek or Macedonian Salt.
- ALUMEN DE BABYLONIA
- Rulandus: is Zacharine Alum, and the same as globular
- ALUMEN DE CRYSTALLO
- Rulandus: is Alumen roce, which is untranslatable.
- ALUMEN DE PLUMAor
- ALUMEN SCARIOLA
- Rulandus: is Gipsum Or Gypsum.
- ALUMEN FASCIOLI
- Rulandus: is Alkali, and is identical with Cabia.
- ALUMEN GLACIOSERO
- Rulandus: is fixed, saline alum.
- ALUMEN IONID
- Rulandus: is Limpart.
- ALUMEN LAMENUM
- Rulandus: is laminated Alum.
- ALUMEN LIQUIDUM
- Rulandus: is Amonum, an aromatic Balsum, otherwise
- ALUMEN LOSE
- Rulandus: is scaly Alum.
- ALUMEN MARINUM
- Rulandus: is a humid spirit.
- ALUMEN ODIG
- ALUMEN PHILOSOPHORUM
- Rulandus: is Lime of Egg Shells.
- ALUMEN ROSA, ROSE ALUM
- Rulandus: That is, Burnt Alum, Baked Alum, and
Alum consumed by fire.
- ALUMEN ROTUNDUM
- Rulandus: which is laminated Alum, is also called Zacharinus.
- ALUMEN SCARIOLE
- Rulandus: is Gipsum.
- ALUMEN SCAROLUM
- Rulandus: is split Alum.
- ALUMEN SCISSUM
- Rulandus: is laminated alum.
- ALUMEN SYRACH, ALUMEN SYSARACH, ALUMEN ALKOKAR, ALUMEN ALURINT, ALUMEN
- Rulandus: are all names of Alumen combustum, which is Alum after
it has been treated with fire.
- Alumen Ustum (Burnt Alum)
- alum dehydrated by heating
- Aluminum Hydroxide. (Al(OH)3
- Rulandus: is a drop.
- Rulandus: is Manna.
- Rulandus: is sulphurated.
- Rulandus: is Atrament.
- Rulandus: is Cinnabar.
- Rulandus: is a weight of three grains.
- Rulandus: is green.
- Rulandus: is burnt Copper.
- Any Mercury alloy
- Rulandus: is a composition of Gold or Silver and Quick Silver.
- Rulandus: is a calcination of the familiar metals by means
of artificial Quicksilver. At the same time, the operation of calcining
is not carried out invariably to its utmost limit, and it is enough for
the metal to be sufficiently melted to assume the consistency of the pulp
or amalgam of the goldsmiths. The disintegration into a most fine powder
which takes place under this process is also called a calcining. Further,
amalgamation is calcination of a metal by Quicksilver; and it is performed
when a metal, after being reduced into fine filing, thin platesor lamina,
is blended and mixed with six, nineor twelve parts of Quicksilver, so
that it becomes a homogeneous mass; and in this way also is the metal calcined
and disintegrated. For the metal is reduced into the condition of a fine
ash by evaporation with Quicksilver over a gentle fire.
- Rulandus: is a stone of various colours. It destroys and
binds all venomous animals, and is in no way contemptible; for which see
- Rulandus: means confect, got together; hence, to amass.
- Rulandus: is Spermaceti.
- Rulandus: is Common Salt, called Apostolus.
- Rulandus: is Powdered Alum.
- Rulandus: is a gem of violet colour, which Pliny says (l.
37, c. 9) approaches the hue of wine, yet, before it thoroughly taste thereof,
it turns into a March violet colour, and its purple lustre is not fiery
altogether, but declines in the end to the colour of wine. India is the
native place of the amethyst, as Pliny also testifies. Thence the finest
are brought; their colour is an absolute purple, and indeed the dyers would
give anything to reproduce it. There is, however, another species which
approaches hyacinth, which colour the Indians term Sacon, and the gem itself
they call Socondion. There is a third species which is paler, and is called
Sapenos and Paranites. A fourth species is wine-colour; a fifth approaches
crystal, having a whitish purple tinge; and by some this species is termed
Anterotis, by others Pcederotos, and by yet others the jewel of Venus.
Amethysts are also found in Arabia Petrea, Armenia, Egypt, Galatia, Tarsus,
and Cyprus. But these are of a miserable and worthless quality. The superstition
of the Magi declares amethysts to have power over drunkenness and evil
thoughts, to protect against poisons, to hive access to the persons of
kings, and to avert hail. Upon the colours of the amethyst, consult Pliny
(1. 20, c. 8, and 1. 9, c. 38). Inferior amethysts are found in many parts
of Bohemia, and in its mines are fluorspars similar to these. The following
varieties are inferior to Oriental:
1. Amethysts of Misnia, from the mines of Bergenbricht.
2. Amethysts from the waters of Misnia, and from the river Trebisa near
3. Amethysts found in the Bohemian mountains.
4. Amethysts which have the appearance of crystal.
5. Amethysts having crystalline lines.
6. Quadrangular and sexangular amethysts, brown and pointed.
- Rulandus: On the testimony of Dioscorides,
is a stone of Cyprus, not unlike certain species of alum. It is impervious
to fire, from which it issues more brilliant. It is fabled by the Germans
to be produced from the hairs of a Salamander, which is accounted for by
its fireproof nature. It is a kind of stone which may be split into threads
and spun. It is without doubt a scaled or feathered Alum, which can burn
for ever (i.e. to say, it is Asbestos). In other respects, the Amianth
is not of great virtue; however, it absorbs moisture. Pliny (l. 36, c.
19) says that it is similar to alum, losing nothing in the fire, and especially
defying all the witchcraft of sorcerers. If we consider well, we (Germans)
ourselves are possessed of a species of Amianth, which is found in our
mines, and which we call Micah. It is of a silver colour. It is called
Cat's Silver, by similitude, because cats' eyes shine like the Amianth
at nightor because it is useless and thought only fit for burning. But
if we consider deeply, it cannot be burned like the true Amianth; but is
rather purged, and assumes another colour; a thing of no moment. What is
more important to know is the power which resides in a certain stone called
Asbestos, which is found in the mountains of Arcadia, as Pliny assures
us (1. 37, c. 10). It is of an iron colour, and Albertus tells us that
it exists also in Arabia. When this stone is set on fire there is scarcely
anything that will extinguish it. Its nature is humid and unctuous. There
is also the vitreous, ruddy-veined Absinth or Wormwood Stone, which will
burn for days at a time, and is said to make bloodor to cause blood to
flow, and is the opposite to Hematite, which congeals or checks blood.
Pliny (1. 37, c. 16) calls this stone Apiston. There is again the stone
called Iscultos by Albertus, and you shall judge by his own words whether
it is the same as the Amianthor a stone of other species. It is similar
to the flower Saffron, he tells us; it is found in the farthest parts of
Spain and in the vicinity of Cadiz; it is of a crumbling nature, on account
of its dried up viscousness. If garments be spun from it they may be cleaned
and made white by fire without burning. It is this perchance which is called
the Salamander's hell, a wool, spun, as it were, from a humid stone.
- Rulandus: is a most white meal.
- Ammoniacal Nitre
- Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)
- Ammonium Fixatum (Fixed Ammoniac)
- The residue on heating sal ammoniac with lime, i. e., Calcium Chloride (CuCl2)
- Rulandus: A precious stone of an ashen colour, representing
a ram's head. It was held sacred in Ethiopia. Otherwise, a horn-shaped
stone, without polish, about eight fingers wide, and over two pounds in
weight. There is a variety from Hildesheimer, also without polish. There
is a third or polished form which has an iron-coloured surface. A fourth
is overlaid with aurichalcum, a metallic substance resembling gold, and
usually regarded as mythical. There are also the following varieties:
1. Ammonites minor, like ova of fish, the lesser Rainstone.
2. Ammonites majoror greater Rainstone.
3. Lepidotusor multi-coloured, like the scales of fish.
4. Strombites longus, the Snailstone, like the marine snail because
it tapers off even as, for example, the whorl of a univalve, in a high
and elevated spire.
5. Strombites brevis, a smaller variety of the same.
6. Ctenites parvus, Musselstone, ashen-coloured, striated, comb-shaped.
7. A shining sandy stone, in which Musselstones are imbedded.
8. A hard ashen stone, found in Lusatia, and containing Musselstone.
9. A polished ashen stone, overlaid with gold colour, and in which a
stone like the Chama is found.
10. Onychites, having the appearance of talons.
11. Ostreites, oyster-shaped Ammonites.
12. Ostreites, another species, consisting of six of the above kind
13. Tellinites, precisely similar to the molluscs, called Tellina, overlaid
with a gold-coloured covering.
14. Chemites, ashen, similar to Chama. See above, species 9.
15. Conchites, similar to a bivalve shell, with a gold-coloured armature.
Another variety of the Snailstone.
- Ammonium Nitrosum
- Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)
- Derives from amylum, starch. Some terms (amylase, amylose,
amylo-pectin) are still directly related to starch. The following terms come from
starch-derived amyl alcohols.
- AMNIS ALCALISATUS
- Rulandus: is water filtered through limestones. Alkalis
are waters filtered through the stones of the earth.
- Rulandus: is Zynobrium.
- AMPULLA VITREA
- Rulandus: is a retort. There is another Ampulla Vitrea,
which is a vessel of glass.
- Rulandus: Signifies among surgeons a certain fleshy
excrescence which forms at the root of the tongue. The German version calls
- A pentyl radical or substituent, C5H11-.
- Pentene, C5H10, usually 1-pentene or 2-pentene; isoamylene is one
of the isomers of 2-methyl-2-butene.
- Amyl Hydrate
- An Amyl (i.e., pentyl) alcohol
- Rulandus: Father, Sulphur.
- ANATON, AMATRON
- Rulandus: Native Soda.
- Rulandus: Refuse of Vitrum (glass).
- Rulandus: i.e., Baurac, which see.
- Rulandus: i.e., Sagimen (salt) of Vitrum (glass)or Salt of
- Rulandus: Froth of Vitreum, Gall of Vitreum. The German context
terms it Sandiber, Gall of Glass.
- Rulandus: is Mercury.
- ANATOMIA ESSATA
- Rulandus: is the parent of diseases.
- Rulandus: is Vitreum melted into various colours. Called vulgarly
Smaltum or Saracenic earth. The species are numerous-black, red, blue.
It is also a substance which grows in stones, and is itself of a white
and stone-like character; by some it is called Native Soda. The ancients
erroneously called it Gall of Vitreum, whereas it is Gall of Stone.
- Rulandus: is calx.
- Rulandus: is lacka.
- Rulandus: is red orpiment.
- Rulandus: is Chalybs, i.e., Steel, brought from Oriental places.
It melts in flame, in the same way as other metals, and can be poured into
- Rulandus: is a congealed substance.
- Rulandus: is smoke, otherwise horse-dung.
- Rulandus: are the fruits and powers of Paradise and of Heaven;
they are also the Christian Sacraments. In things physical they signify
the astral potencies, and the celestial potencies, and they are those things
which, by thought, judgment, and imagination, promote longevity in us.
But these things are the gift of God, and make for life eternal.
- Rulandus: is the efficacy or virtue of things.
- Rulandus: is the archnatural body which in us Christians is
implanted by the Holy
Ghost working through the most holy Sacraments. Or it is the spiritual
man reborn in us.
- Rulandus: As the philosophers conceive three principles, Salt,
Sulphur, and Mercury, so also they conceive three other divisions-Soul,
Spirit, and Body, not that the Soul and the Spirit are to be distinguished
as cattle from men, but by way of similitude. The Soul is nothing else
but a living, formed Body, that is turned into Mercury, and when this is
done to the dead Body and Spirit, then the whole is made living Elixir.
Therefore, do not make a mistake, when the philosophers speak of one Soul
instead of two Souls, for it is all one thing. The Mercury has in itself
the Soul, and is called our Mercury, which is the house and dwelling of
the Soul. Also the Soul is called Spirit, and the Spirit is called Soul.
The Spirit produces the Soul from the Body, and returns it when it is white.
Therefore, it is called the Life of the Soul
- Rulandus: Vita Anima. Should the
Spirit depart from the Soul it could not give the life. The Soul unites
and conjoins the married, Body and Spirit; so the Spirit unites the Soul
with the Body, so that it is all one thing. There are two Souls
- Rulandus: one
of gold, the other of silver. The Soul of the gold must remain, and cannot
do so without the Spirit, nor yet the Spirit remain without the Soul. There
must be fixed, abiding, undying Souls. At first the Soul lies hidden under
the Spirit; finally, the Soul and Spirit remain hidden under the Body.
Then dost thou first behold pure Mercury. Through the crude Spirit is the
mature Mercury taken away from the released Body, which is a fixed ash
remaining behind to be dissolved further. Out of this is extracted a petrine,
incombustible Olitet or Gum, which vivifies, unites, and welds the natures
together, and as they separated the natures through the Spirit, accordingly
through the Soul they unite them again. This Olitet preserves the colour
of the Spirit even to thickening. Then is it fit for the production of
royal weapons and metallic figures. It manifests itself as golden in golden
and as argentine in silver. The Soul's ascent is when the Body becomes
white, clear, and fluid. Immediately they are one and living. Then is there
danger. If the Soul escapes or burns it is lost. So is the Soul quickly
given to the Body and takes shape. The Soul proceeds out of the unified
Body; she is herself the living body, and is called REBIS, Putrid Water,
Corruption of the Dead, Blood and Blood Water, Lymph, the Animal Stone,
Blessed, Blood, Sulphur, Olitet. The Soul is a simple thing, which sometimes
has power to bring the Body with it.*
[* It is the tincture withdrawn from the body. Soul also is said to
be in Arsenic.]
- ANIMA SATURNIor
- Rulandus: (Literally, Marshmallows)
of Saturn, is a most mellifluous sweetness which is extracted from Lead
by vinegar. (A right noble sweetness, according to the German.)
- Aniline Purple
- Mauvein, C27H24N4, the first aniline dye, 1856
- Animal Alkali
- Ammonium Carbonate [(NH4)2CO3]
- Rulandus: is Calx of Eggsor living Calxor Quicklime.
- ANNUS PHILOSOPHICUS
- Rulandus: The philosophical year, is the vulgar
- Rulandus: is the nutriment which is separated in the veins.
- A medicine or drug which alleviates pain.
- Rulandus: is the Philosophical Stone, the gift of God, Sulphur
fixed by Nature.
- Rulandus: is Quicklime.
- ANOTASIER, ALIOCAB, ALEMZADAT
- Rulandus: are names of Sal Ammoniac.
- Rulandus: Son, Mercury.
- Rulandus: Spirit, Salt.
- Rulandus: is a pure lotion.
- Rulandus: is Mercury.
- Rulandus: is extract of the medicinal properties of the Hyacinth.
It is also the yellow centre which is found in such flowers as the Lily.
- ANTHONOR, ATHONOR
- Rulandus: That is, Oven.
- Rulandus: is properly ROSEMARY, but in the terminology of metals
it signifies Quintessenceor Elixir of Gold. It means further the extracted
- Rulandus: is Borax.
- Hydrated Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3)
- Rulandus: is Calx of Metals.
- Rulandus: A stone from a lead veinor
vein of Othi. It is also Marchasite, a kind of Saturn, a kind of Antistinus
(unknown), and Stybium. It is a muddy Marchasite, having a fixed Sulphur,
and is insoluble. It is of two kinds. One is the ordinary black species
of Saturn, and is called Magnesia, Bismuth, Contersin. It is of the race
of Jupiter, an immature, ill-favoured product. It is Dross of Lead and
has the virtues of burnt Lead, being of similar substance. It is cold,
dry, and astringent.
- Antimonial Caustic
- Antimony Trichloride (SbCl3)
- Antimonium Diaphoreticum
- Mixture of Antimony Oxide and Potassium Antimoniate (Sb2O3; KSbO3)
- Antimony Sulfide (Sb2S3) (pre-18th. century). Pure Antimony was
called "regulus of antimony."
- From latin "antimonium" used by Constantinius Africanus (c. 1050) to refer to
- Antimony Black
- Antimony Trisulfide. Antimony (III) Sulfide, Sb2S3, a grey-black
- Antimony Bloom, White
- Antimony Trioxide. Antimony (III) oxide, Sb2O3.
- Antimony Glance
- Antimony Trisulfide. Stibnite, a native Antimony (III) Sulfide. (See Glance.)
- Antimony Red
- Antimony Oxysulfide.
- Antimony Vermilion, (Red, Flowers)
- Antimony Oxysulfide. Antimony (III) Oxysulfide, Sb2O3.Sb2S3,
containing some SbOS2. See Flowers.
- Opposed to fermentation
- ANUCAR, ANCINAR
- Rulandus: is Borax.
- Rulandus: Eternal Spring, the new world, the Paradise to come.
- Rulandus: A utensil with a narrow mouth, used in manufacturing
- Rulandus: is Sulphur.
- Rulandus: is the venereal state.
- Rulandus: Froth of Saltpetre, Wall-salt. As salt and froth
of salt have great affinity for each other, so also have Nitre and Froth
of Nitre in like manner. For the rest, Aphronitum, Froth of Nitre, Flower
of Stoneor Wallflower (like froth of salt) is excessively light, lumpy,
crumbling, frothy, pungent, and that which approaches a purple colour is
the best kind. We term Froth of Nitre both Aphronitum and Frothy Aphronitrum
which grows on walls and stones; in many places it is known by the German
name of Mergell. Froth of Nitre varies in its species according to the
stones and walls where it grows. Its virtue is similar to burnt salt. Froth
of Nitre, Flower of Stone, and Flower of Stone of Asia are very nearly
the same, differing slightly in substance. If it melts in fire, it is Flower
of Stone of Asia; if not, it is our own Froth of Nitre.
At Iena, in Thuringia, which is rich in simples, a very beautiful species
of Aphronitum is found, which corresponds in the main to the Flower of
Stone of Asia, described by Dioscorides.
- Apothecary Measures, Dram (Drachm)
- Unit of weight equal to 3.888 g.
- Apothecary Measures, Fluid Dram (Drachm)
- Unit of volume equal to 3.55 mL (60 minims).
- Apothecary Measures, Minim
- Unit of volume equal to 0.0616 mL
- Apothecary Measures, Pound (Libra) Troy
- Unit of weight equal to 373.2 g
- Apothecary Measures, Scruple
- Unit of weight equal to 1.296 g.
- Literally water (Latin). In addition to terms denoting a condition or source of water
(such as aqua tepida, warm wateror aqua nivialis, water from snow), some aqua
terms denote aqueous solutions.
Rulandus: i.e., Liquid; the elemental matter from which water can
always be obtained. It is not water from the clouds, but a dry mineral
first substance, a catholic water, which dissolves all metals, and can
be reduced to water even as ice is reduced. It is almost like a blackish
gum, according to R. W. This water cleans, washes and expands, it renders
substances spongy and liquid, and afterwards dries and fixes them, making
them white and red. Therefore Gebir says: Burn it in water and wash it
in fire. The end of the Epistle to Thomas of Bonona describes this water.
As ordinary water in which vegetables are boiled partakes of their nature
and virtue, so also is it with the mercury which is boiled with metals.
Out of this water all things grow and have their nourishment. It unites
itself with metals, which can be performed by no common water without aqua
The fruit shall not be disturbed for the intercourse of the bridegroom
and the bride, but no ordinary water shall be extracted from the mercury,
for if the mercury be changed from its first nature, it is useless for
this purpose, because it has lost its spermatic and metallic character.
Therefore our water is not clear and translucid, but dark, for the (philosophical)
earth is beneath it.
There are two kinds of water; the first dissolves and makes its subject
spongy ; the other completes the operation. This is truly fire, and even
stronger than fire, for it is a universal solvent. One is simple, though
evil, the other is composite; both are philosophical. The Water is Adam,
the Earth is Eve, and these two are one flesh. They are also called Salt
Urine, Salt Water, Vinegar, Sour Wine, Living Calx, Water, Sea Water, Ashen
Water, Yeast, Alum, Nitric Water, Dog Bane, Dragon's Tail, Soul, Wind,
Air, Life, the Illuminating Gift, Broad Daylight, Virginal Milk, Armenian
Salt, Saltpetre, White Smoke, Red Sulphuric Water, Gummy Water, the Male,
Tartar, Saffron Water, Burnt Ore, White Composition, Putrid Water, Putrefaction
of Dead Bodies, Blood, Mercury, Cucurbit, Alembic, Vase of the Philosophers,
of which the upper part is called the Grand Manor Head-piece, the middle
is called Belly, the end is called Foot. When the vessel is put in the
oven, a vapour rises into the funnel, and passes as water into the belly,
immediately producing a soul. The water dissolves the rest and absorbs
it upward. This takes place in a philosophical month of 40 days. It is
called the Flying Dragon, heavenly natured, dividing the elements of bodies
and again uniting them. At last it turns thick like honey, and of green
colour. It is called the Green Bird.
- Aqua Fortis
- Concentrated Nitric Acid (HNO3). Literally "u water". See Nitrous Acid, Spirit of Nitre.
- Aqua Phaganeda or Phagadenica
- A mixture of corrosive sublimate and limewater
- AQUA ALMA
- Rulandus: is Water produced from Wine by sublimation.
- AQUA ALREGI
- Rulandus: is Lime Water.
- AQUA COELESTIS
- Rulandus: Celestial Water, is rectified or sublimed
Wine, partaking, in a certain way, of the nature and likeness of heaven,
passing through many revolutions. It is the German Himinels Wasser.
- AQUA CCELESTINA
- Rulandus: is Mercurial Water.
- AQUA CEREBRI
- Rulandus: is Tartaric Water.
- AQUA CORRODENS
- Rulandus: is Vinegaror any corrosive liquid.
- AQUA ELSABON
- Rulandus: is Water of Common Salt.
- AQUA FIECUM VINI
- Rulandus: Water of Wine Lees (in German Weinhesen
Wasser) is made when the lees, having been evaporated, whitened, and calcined,
are dissolved with water in a marble basin, after the manner of oil of
- AQUA FOETIDA
- Rulandus: is Mercurial Water.
- AQUA FORTIS
- Rulandus: is composed of corrosives combined in a certain
proportion (that is to say, it is impure Nitric Acid), and distilled by
a fierce fire; it has a most piercing corrosive power. The strongest is
called Stygian, which rules Sal Ammoniac with the rest, as therein gold
is dissolved. The other species have various qualities. Aqua Fortis, increased
by careful mixture, to be suitable for certain purposes, is called Gradatoria,
which is applied to the graduation of dyes. And they (the other kinds)
become like Aqua Fortis of the same material, but this is done by the addition
of colouring matter like cinnabar and alum. In which (operations) it should
be noted that it dyes nothing unless there be cohibition over the feces
at least eight or ten times, since otherwise they will not be fixed.
- AQUA HOLSOBON
- Rulandus: is common Salt Water.
- AQUA LILII
- Rulandus: is Orpiment.
- AQUA LUBRICATA
- Rulandus: or Mucilage, is Water combined with Sugar,
julep, and similar substances, such as claret and spirituous liquors.
- AQUA MARINA
- Rulandus: is sea water.
- AQUA MERCURII
- Rulandus: Mercurial Water. Essential Water of the stone.
- AQUA NITRI
- Rulandus: is Salt of Alkalior Aqua Fortis.
- AQUA PERMANENS
- Rulandus: Enduring Water, is that which is made by the
philosophical solution out of two perfect metallic bodies. It is Sol and
Luna dissolved in water, and likewise united. It is also called Celestial
Water, and Mercury of the Philosophers. It is Incombustible Gum, the very
best Vinegar; a sharp, penetrating Water, which dissolves bodies; and the
Spiritual Virtue. Called Mercury because it has sharp and clear Mercurial
power and property. Also Maleor Husband, and White Smoke, because it
rises and goes up. Also Dragon's Tail, and Flying Bird.
- AQUA PHILOSOPHICA
- Rulandus: Philosophical Water, signifies, with some
writers, Sublimed Vinegar; with others, Circulated Wine; with yet others,
Perennial Water, which does not wet the hands.
- AQUA PALIESTINA
- Rulandus: Palestine Water, is Flower of Copperor
- AQUA PLUVIALIS
- Rulandus: is Rain-water, Soft-water.
- Aqua Regia
- Literally "Water of the King" or "Royal Water". A mixture of Nitric
Acid, HNO3 and Hydrochloric Acid, HCl capable of dissolving the "Royal
Metal" gold. Various proportions were used, depending on the material to be
dissolved. Commonly, more Nitric Acid than Hydrochloric Acid was employed.
- AQUA RUBICUNDA
- Rulandus: Ruddy Water; Aqua Megi and Aqua Segi are Vitriol
- AQUA SALMATINA
- Rulandus: is Water made from Salt.
- AQUA SATURNIA
- Rulandus: is Water generated from the first principles
in the bowels of the earth, and resolved into small diaphanous stones.
Radicated Vinegar Water. Chalybeate. Aqua Saturnia is also that which retains
the nature of the three first principles through which it passes, such
as thermal springs said to be naturally medicated.
- Aqua Secunda
- Dilute Nitric Acid , often used for cleaning metals and minerals.
- AQUA STILLATITIA
- Rulandus: Dropping Water, is a specific extract of
aqueous consistence produced in the condensation of vapours after distillation.
It is of two kinds, solvent and simple distilled water. Simple distilled
waters are specific material arcana, distilled from substances in such
a manner that, while retaining the arcane virtue, they are nevertheless
softer and weaker than are solvent waters, and approach nearer to a phlegmatic
element; more correctly, simple distilled waters, which are softer, and
more diluted in strength and consistence, are produced by a more simple
distilling. For the phlegmatic element is cruder, and differs little from
common water in appearance. Simple distilled water has a more aqueous and
less igneous character than solvent water, but is more igneous and less
crude than phlegm. And although all the water is used up in distillation
yet it is first named from its office, and in the end more properly receives
the name of a solvent. It differs from simple distilled water by its penetrating
and ardent sharpness, and laborious distillation, so that it has a minimum
of aqueous element, but is more like a flowing fireor a fiery water.
By Gebir it is termed Aqua Acuta; by others, the Key of Philosophers. Quicksilver
obtains in certain cases the whole strength of this water. Other substances
have the same office, as lye, stalactite, and honey, also undefiled aqueous
substances, like sour wine. It is the vulgar custom to distinguish between
simple distilled water and corrosive water. True solvent water is the same
as aqua fortis. (Solvent water is distilled vinegar; also called sea water,
because in distillation there is more fluid than residue; and again cloud
water, because of the brightness of rain-drops.
- Aqua Tofani
- Arsenious Oxide. Extremely poisonous.
- AQUA VALENS
- Rulandus: is Aqua Fortis.
- AQUA VITRI
- Rulandus: is glass dissolved with water.
- Aqua Vitae
- Literally, "Water of Life"; concentrated Aqueous Ethanol, C2H5OH,
typically prepared by distilling wine [Arnald of Villanova]
Rulandus: is Mercury, but the term is sometimes used for
distilled Wine, and for various Waters mixed with distilled Wine.
- Rulandus: is iron colour.
- Rulandus: is a simulaerum, which stands for a thing, but is
not the thing itself.
- Rulandus: The Eagle, queen of birds, signifies Sal Ammoniac,
because of its lightness in sublimations. In many places Paracelsus, however,
uses it for Precipitated Mercury.
- Rulandus: is Birdlime, which appears reddish in the first coagulation.
It is also the Spirit that is changed into Earth, i.e., the Spirit of Mercury,
the stone itself. The Turba says: The perfection of every single thing
is in its own order. Therefore the adept fixes ten Eagles, etc. It is also
said to be Sal Ammoniac and Fixed Sulphur.
- Rulandus: is Arsenicor Sulphur.
- Rulandus: is Aurum Guttendo (probably gold liquefied), also
Fidelo, Edel, Sedalo, arbitrary terms not explained by Rulandus.
- AQUILA PHILOSOPHORUM
- Rulandus: The Eagle of Philosophers is the Mercury
of Metals, i.e., a metallic nature reduced into its first matter.
- Rulandus: Wild Marjoram.
- Rulandus: is Laton, i.e., Aurichalcum.
- ARBOR MARIS
- Rulandus: is a metalline substance which grows in the sea.
That is, it is a coral, and its other names are Corallia, Curallion, Gorgonion,
Dendrites, and Lithodendron.
- Rulandus: Same as Morphea (? Morphew); a scurfy eruption of
the skin, at first without ulceration, which, however, follows in time.
- Rulandus: is a secret, incorporeal, and immortal thing, which
no man can know save by experience. It is the interior virtue of any substance
which can achieve a thousand more wonders than the thing itself. The unrevealed
principle, undying essence.
- ARCANUM MATERIALS
- Rulandus: or Physical Secret, is a specific extract
akin to the matter of a body. But when the matter of fixed bodies is composed
of a duplex element, namely, humid and dry (note that air and fire are
more properly formatives, and possess an efficient faculty), then does
the Arcanum imitate a like condition: distilled water and coagulate specific.
- ARCANUM SPECIFICUM
- Rulandus: is an extract of the interior nature,
related so intimately to the substance of any species that the same may
be known therein. It must be educed with care lest the gross substance
perish. For this reason is it called specific. And it differs from quintessence,
which, by reason of its extreme subtlety and excellence, seems almost to
have deserted its species, and gone over to the class of ethereal things.
But the Specific Arcanum exhibits the substance, shape, and specific difference
of composites as an extract more akin to the interior body. The Specific
Arcanum is duplex. One is of the essential and substantial form, and is
called Astral, the other is Material.
- Rulandus: as it were, the pillars of the earth, the Paracelsian
foundation of the earth, which does not appear to be supported by its fellows,
but by a great and secret power of God. Called also Archallem. The power
which upholds the earth by itself, for the other elements do not hold it
- Rulandus: is the divider of the elements; he disposes them,
and relegates everything to its place, genus, and species.
- Rulandus: is a most high, exalted, and invisible spirit, which
is separated from bodies, is exalted, and ascends; it is the occult virtue
of Nature, universal in all things, the artificer, the healer. Also Archiatros
- Rulandus: supreme physician of Nature, who to every substance and member dispenses
in an occult manner, by means of the air, its own individual Archeus. Also
the primal Archeus in Nature is a most secret virtue producing all things
out of Master, doubtless certainly supported by divine virtue. Or, Archeos
is an errant, invisible species, the power and virtue of Nature's healing,
the artist and healer of Nature, separating itself from bodies, and ascending
from them. Archeus signifies, in addition, the power which educes the One
Substance from Iliaster, and is the dispenser and composer of all things.
It individualizes in all things, including human nature.
- ARCOS, AYCOPHES, AZAPHORA
- Rulandus: are names for Burnt Copper.
- Rulandus: is a small bow.
- Rulandus: Ardent or fiery matters, which are not assimilated
in food and drink and are by their nature obnoxious to operations, as,
for example, Carabe, Therebinth, Bitumen, and similar substances. That
which naturally burnsor gives forth fire.
- Ardent Spirit
- Ethyl Alcohol obtained after repeated distillations (CH3CH2OH)
- Rulandus: Any flat or open surface, as, for example, a heath.
In metals, a mass excavated from a mine. Tow.
- Rulandus: Clear spaces.
- AREA CAPITIS ADVERSI TODINARUM
- Rulandus: Shaft of a Mine. Mine where
ore has been found.
- AREA ROTUNDA
- Rulandus: A sandy circle.
- ARE MAROS
- Rulandus: Cinnabar.
- Rulandus: Sand is the clear body of the stone.
The Species of Sand are as follow:
1. Common sand.
2. A beautiful white sand dug up in deep gulleys to the west of Misena.
3. Pestgrana, also from Misena.
4. Thirsty or absorbing sand, which is washed and sifted, and has the
character of German blotting-paper.
5. Table sandor Block sand. Sand which has not been washed.
6. Sand found at Groede, in the Netherlands.
7. Sand from the pits of Misena.
8. River sand, which is mixed with lime, and is made use of in building.
9. Metallic sand from gold mines, in which particles and grains of gold
10. Metallic, out of which gold is washed in the Elbe.
11. Metallic sand of Misnense, in the district spoken of by fishermen,
12. Sand of Misnense, from the bank near the bridge of Schellenberg,
and in that wood.
13. Coarse sand which is strewn over roads-sand for pathways.
14. Coarse black sand, from which those small black pellets are obtained
out of which white lead is extracted. Sand containing tin.
15. Coarse, barren Sand.
16. Red Sand of Thuringia.
17. Yellow Sand of Glogaw.
18. Sand of a golden colour, from which the Roman mountain derives its
- Rulandus: Golden Mountain, formerly called Janiculum.
19. Grey Sand.
20. Shining or Sparkling Sand
21. Sea Sand.
22. Sand out of pools and stagnant water. Muddy Sand.
23. Slimy metallic Sand.
- Rulandus: Armenian Bolus. See Bolus.
- ARENAS RIVORUM FLUMINUMQUE LAVARE
- Rulandus: A scouring, washing with
lather. The cleansing of any sand from the foreign matters which are mixed
- Rulandus: Not to be confounded with the chemical Mars. It is the
giver of seed, the occult dispenser of Nature in the three prime principles,
and the bond of their union. It distributes to all things whatsoever its
peculiar form, species, and substance, so that it may put on its proper
and specific nature, and no other. Between these three there is therefore
to be noted a difference in nature beautifully ordained by divine providence.
Ares is the spirit in Nature which out of the three prime principles gives
to everything its shape, genus, and substance. These three are Iliaster,
Archeus, and Ares. Iliaster is a substance of most widely spread nature,
consisting in the universal first matter of all things, which it first
distributes into the three principles, Sulphur, Mercury and Salt. Iliaster
is the substance, the First Matter of all things, out of the said three
principles. Archeus is the first dispenser of Nature. He produces and creates,
like an artificer, all things, after their own kinds, out of this Nature.
Aresor the Assigner, extends the peculiar nature to each species, and
gives individual form, so that it is by him that, for example, in the vegetable
world, plants are endowed with root, stalk, flowers, leaves, and sap.
1. Pure, unmixed silver, needing no cleansing in the furnace; solid
silver, wanting no fusing, generated in perfection, possessing a perfect
colour, firmly encrusted with a species of rock or ore. At this present
time such silver is still turned out from our mines. But of this species
Pliny was ignorant when he said (1. 33, c. 6): It is never found but in
pits sunk on purpose for it, nor is it ever found pure and solid, nor are
there any bright sparkles, as in gold mines, to indicate its existence
in the ore. The earth that engenders the vein is either reddish or of an
ashen grey. So far Pliny. But this pure silver surrounds the stone in extremely
thin plates; sometimes also it exhibits a species of small hairs upon its
surfaceor little curls of thread, also small twig-like filaments, either
white or redor like such fibres of red silk as are used in spinning.
Again it bears impressions of trees, instruments, mountains, herbs, and
other objects. I have myself beheld likenesses of fish; I have beheld the
crucified Christ and our Lady; I have seen a serpent, a scorpion, etc.,
formed out of pure silver in the bowels of the earth.
2. Rude silver ore, of which various kinds are produced from our mines,
namely, deep red, leaden, black, purple, ashen, and reddish in colour,
of which we proceed to treat successively.
3. Silver melted out of other metals, such as leaden pyrite, mica, etc.,
concerning which see also below.
Rude silver of a ruby colour-
- Rulandus: called red golden ore by the Germans.
It seems to be a kind of carbuncle. The carbuncle has, however, an intenser
ray, but this rude silver is of a paler ruby. It is found in mines, valleys,
and other places variously deposited, but chiefly after three manners:
Firstly, in a black-coloured ore ; secondly, like minute bright particles
adhering to a certain species of rock; thirdly, in pure solid masses or
nuggets cleaving to stones or rocks. It is sometimes found by itself, sometimes
in combination with a foreign substance, which projects in a sharp-pointed
pyramidal or top-like manner. Sometimes it assumes a square or quadrangular
form, sometimes it is sexangular, like the Iris stone; frequently it consists
of many unequal angles. Thus by a wonderful operation does Nature practice
geometry in the bowels of the earth. Lastly, rude ruby-coloured silver
is found beautifully aspersed with blue, so that Nature would seem to have
exhausted her ingenuity over the formation of the metals, and to have diverted
and amused herself with so many and such brilliant colours, that no art,
however high, could possibly attempt to follow. This last species of silver
was unknown to Dioscorides, to Pliny, indeed to all the ancients. Theophrastus
was the first to make mention of it, when he said: There is another gem
of a colour like unto plums, which loses a little of its weight in melting,
as the smiths know". It should be noted, in fine, that a most admirable
colour for painting is composed out of this species. It might also have
a place in medicine did any one make the experiment. It has been erroneously
confused with Sandarach, as will be shown under that head.
Rude silver of a lead colour. Nature, by hot and dry vapours exhausted
in the bowels of the earth, tinges or dyes the sap or moisture whence silver
is madeor joins it with various colours, as we find in these species
of rude silver. The first of these is of red colour, sometimes aspersed
with cerulean. The second, with which we are here concerned, has the hue
of lead, and is found in vale and mountain. It is conspicuously like the
lead ore with which it is connected by name. But this is as regards colour,
for in other points it differs, as the illustrious Georgius Agricola very
plainly lays down in his Berinannusor Metallic Nature. But to return
to our subject. I have said that rude lead-coloured silver resembles lead
ore, but it differs in this, that lead ore is of crumbling nature, and
falls to pieces easily when struck with a knife. But the silver species
cannot well be pounded; it can be cloven, it is true, with a knife, like
lead, but when it has been bitten with the teeth it rebounds again, and
lead ore will not do so to any appreciable extent. This species of silver
is found in large lumps in its own veins, as if imbedded in a nest. It
is also found in conglomerated masses, looking something like buds distributed
on the branches of a tree, with perfectly circular nodules, cleaving to
rocksor imbedded therein. At other times it assumes the shape of little
sticksor other similar figures. Agricola testifies that he has seen perfect
specimens of metallic instruments such as shovels and small hammers taken
from the ore. I myself have beheld natural figures or images of small fish,
lions, wolves, etc. Truly Nature is not idle in the darkness and the depths
of the earth. Other varieties of this species adhere like thin plates to
Rude black silver, the black silver ore of the Germans, is the third
species of rude silver. Occasionally it shines in the black ore, much like
the lead-coloured species which has been already described. Again, it has
little particles of the red-coloured varietyor particles at other times
of white silver, and the more it abounds in these, the more metal does
the ore yield when it is melted, which was unknown to Pliny and the ancients.
Occasionally the ore is sterile, when it is simply termed black earth,
and as such is treated in its proper place, s.v. Terra.
Rude purple silver, the fourth species of the rude metal, the Braun
Erz of the Germans, was unknown to Pliny and the ancients, but it has no
little percentage of silver in the ore. It is found chiefly in the mines
Rude reddish and ash-coloured silver, otherwise grey ore, is the fifth
of the rude varieties, and yields more metal in melting because its proportion
of silver exceeds the others. Thus we certainly see that the grey ore is
frequently rich in silver, more especially when it is somewhat hard, so
that it can be cut with a knifeor if it be soft, with very thin morsels
of silver shining in the leaden ore. When it does not possess this colour,
it is then of least value, having the smallest proportion of silver. With
these two varieties Pliny seems to have been acquainted when he says (1.
33, c. 6.), One ore is ruddy, the other ashen; I find little of any other
kind. And these were known to the ancients. These are the six species of
rude silver ore which are known to German metallurgists. Perchance there
are others also which might be discovered by a diligent examination of
the mines, such as we ourselves may undertake at a future time when our
leisure is greater than at present.
The refuse of silver, called also Scoria, Helcysma, Encauma, Silver
Slack, :; that which is left after the metal has been melted outor which
is commonly removed from the furnaces where silver is subjected to the
operation of fire. Dioscorides (l. 5, c. 51), affirms that the recrement
of silver has the virtue of lead wortor plumbago, which is an astringent,
and draws out. It should, therefore, be an ingredient in plasters placed
upon wounds. But do you, candid reader, consider how complicated with us
is this matter of the recrement of silver? For silver is melted out of
pyrites, that is, out of copper ore, and out of lead ore. Do you judge
whether this, which is our true recrement of silver, is that meant by Dioscorides,
who was unacquainted with these same species, and how, therefore, could
he know the true recrement of this precious metal? But we will set aside
these considerations. Consult Pliny on the recrement of silver (1. 33,
c. 6). It may be granted out of hand that silver cools and desiccates,
and, therefore, its scoriae are of a drying nature, as .va may experience
in our own recrement of rude silver, if we put faith in the recrements
- ARFAR or
- Rulandus: is Arsenic.
- ARGENTI SPUMA
- Rulandus: is Litharge, which still contains a certain
percentage of silver; it used in plasters, and has otherwise a penetrating
quality. It differs little from recrement of silver obtained from the leaden
ore, and is very like lead spume. Dioscorides, who was well acquainted
with the workshops where metals are melted, and little with the mines,
enumerates (1. 5, c. 52), three species of silver litharge:
1. Molybditis, spume of lead, which is melted out of sand in furnaces,
until it burns with a perfect flame.
2. From lead, which is made from leaden plates; Dioscorides praises
the Attic and Spanish, and afterwards that which comes from the warm wells
of Puzzoli, Baia, the Campania, and from Sicily.
3. Litharge of silver, which is of two kinds, Argyritis, German silver
litharge, from silver-coloured silver, which at the present day is used
in a crude and not a prepared state. Chrysitis, which is of gold colour,
and is the gold litharge of the Germans, not that it is made from gold;
it is derived from silver, and the reference is to the colour only. The
virtue of these varieties, according to Dioscorides, is astringent, mollifying,
restoring, restraining, and cooling.
Consult also Dioscorides upon the methods of burning and cleansing litharge
of silver, how colouring matter is added to it, how its mature state is
ascertained, and what its virtues are. Pliny (1. 33, c. 6), makes three
species of silver litharge:
1. The best, which he calls Chrysitis.
2. Argyritis, made from silver.
3. Molybditis, fused out of lead, whence its name is derived.
Hence it would appear that Pliny represents Molybditis to be fused out
of lead, while, according to Dioscorides, it is obtained out of sand, unless
the species derived from leaden plates was formerly called Molybditis.
Pliny, who, according to his custom, transfers all the information of Dioscorides
concerning litharge of silver to his own pages, notes also that litharge
from scoria differs as much as possible from litharge obtained from recrement.
There are others who regard Sterelite and Pneumenis as species of litharge.
When litharge of silver is drunk, it is said to be a potent and speedy
acting poison, which also Dioscorides affirms (1. 6, c. 27). And Nicander,
to whom Dioscorides is in this place considerably indebted, in the twenty-second
recipe of his Alexipharmaca, which may be consulted concerning symptoms
and antidotes. On this point, see also Serapion, his book of Aggregation,
in the chapter on Marechet. See also Paulus on the virtues of Litharge
of Silver, s.v. Galenum.
Silver is otherwise thus divided.
1. Rude white lumpy silver from Schneberg, which can be cut with a knife
and beaten out with a hammer. Snow-white solid silver; thick silver.
2. Nuggets of solid silver in a very white metallic spar.
1. Silver of Anneberg, solid, white, capillary silver.
2. Solid capillary silver, having a multitude of wiry fibres bundled
3. Very white silver, like a ball of minute silver threads ; twisted
4. Like a silver curling iron, in a crumbling earth of a nut-brown colour.
5. In a shiny loam-coloured earth.
6. Silver of Marieberg, in a gray, metallic, fluid cobalt.
7. In a very white horn stone.
8. In a red quadrangular translucid fluor spar.
9. Silver of Marieberg, in a hard grey stone.
10. Capillary silver of Anneberg, in a mass of lead-coloured silver.
11. Capillary silver of Anneberg, with silver of a lead-colour in a
very white spar, combined with a red-coloured pyrites.
12. Capillary silver, combined with lead-coloured silver in white fluor
spars. 13- Capillary silver found in the valley of Joachimica, in a forest
of fir-trees. 14- White ore of Anneberg, containing rude, ruby-coloured
capillary silver, of transparent appearance. Also rude lead coloured silver
clearly distinguished in the same stone. Golden ore and vitreous ore combined,
yet clearly distinguished.
Compounded in other Forms.
1. Deposited in the form of little trees.
2. A flame-shaped ore to which little masses of lead-coloured silver
are found adhering.
1. Pure, solid, white plates of silver in a fatty stone.
2. Thin solid plates of white silver in hard grey ore of Marieberg.
3. Pure white silver in iron pyrites.
4. A clear, solid silver in a clear mountain Chrysocolla, from the Alps
1. Lead-coloured silver, easily cut and made into coins, and easily
hammered into plates.
2. In hard and very white pyrites.
3. In sexangular white fluors.
4. Impressedor stamped, vitreous ore, which has not been tried by
fire. Soft, and therefore easily broken.
5. A pure, quadrangular, vitreous ore, of conical or pyramidal form.
6. In transparent, purple, quadrangular fluors, blunt-pointed.
7. Rude ruby-coloured silver in the centre of a solid vitreous ore of
Grey or Ashen.
1. Grey solid silver, in shape like tongues of flame, found in the hard
cobalt of Anneberg.
2. A specimen of solid grey ore.
3. Grey silver in a very white flint.
1. Black solid ore in a sheer hornstoneor flint.
2. In grey pyrites.
3. Shaped like a branch of the cypress tree.
Transparent and Ruby-coloured.
1. A small nugget, like a carbuncle or amethyst. Fine ruby-red, gold-red
2. Like a carbuncle, with six, sevenor eight angles. Of the shape
of an upright beam, in grey pyrites, and natural yellow sulphur.
3. Like the bristles of the hedgehog in a black metallic cobalt; shaped
like a head.
4. Little masses seeming to be compacted of red garnet.
5. Larger nuggets compacted like transparent red garnet.
1. Blood-red, seven-angled, gold-red ore.
2. A nugget in a white metallic spar.
3. A nugget in a gold-coloured pyrites, similar to natural cinnabar.
4. In white sexangular fluorspar, like the exterior cortex of the chestnut
rough and sharp and prickly.
5. In an ashen flint.
6. Beaten, golden-red ore, cleaving to a grey hornstone.
7. Showing white in a very golden-red ore.
8. White, red, and gold in a soft white stone.
9. In ashen pyrites.
10. In a worthless sulphuret of lead.
11. Silver containing gold; golden silver.
12. Dark golden red.
13. Liver-coloured, golden red.
1. A yellow capillary silver in a yellow earth.
2. Like copper pyrites, to which lead-coloured particles adhere.
3. A transparent horn-coloured pure silver of Marieberg, scintillating
4. Solid dark silver, like an ordinary grey earth. It is heavy, and
if struck with a hammer, will sparkle. Many experienced miners are unacquainted
1. Containing in its centre, like a kernel, a rude red silver.
2. Mixed with lead-coloured silver and pure white nuggets.
3. Green silver of Anneberg, mined in celestial blue veins.
4. Purple or brown-coloured silver mined in the same place.
5. Silverine stone.
6. Veins of silver in a hard gravel-stone.
7. A rich silver ore from which the recrement has not been removed.
8. Silver mixed with lead, separated from copper. Mixed with lead, i.e.,
tin, black lead.
9. Rich ore mixed with lead.
10. Lead or pig of workable lead, rich in silver.
11. Mediocre, a thin line in the vein.
12. Poor, a freshly deposited layer.
13. Hard layers, rich in metal.
14. Soft and dry, with a large proportion of black lead.
15. A small specimen of silver nuggets.
16. Refined silver.
17. Grey recrement of gold; grey silver slag.
18. Black silver slag.
19. Silver litharge.
20. Prepared silver, rich in lead.
21. Refined silver, purged from other metals.
22. Burnt silver.
23. Fine, prepared silver.
24. Pressed or stamped silver.
25. Gilt silver.
26. Silver drawn into wire.
27. Silver plates.
28. Silver separated by washing from copper.
29. Silver dissolved into grains.
- Latin for Silver hence the symbol Ag; argentum vivum, literally "Living
Silver", is native Mercury [Pliny]
Rulandus: The Luna of Chemists, to which also it is attributed,
is the metal ranked next after gold, white with a pure whiteness, unspotted,
hard, resonant; and the colour of its whiteness is due to pure, very fixed
quicksilver, which is also white and clear. In like manner, it is composed
of sulphur, clean, fixed, white, and clear, which has precipitated the
substance of quicksilver, but is something deficient in fixation, colour,
and weight. Silver is, as it were, a daughter of Nature most near unto
gold, produced from the copulation of quick silver, and white, incombustible
sulphur. Silver is found in our mines.
- ARGENTUM POPULI
- Rulandus: Alkali or nitre.
- ARGENTUM VIVUM
- Rulandus: is the chemical term for Mercury. It is simply
a viscous water, in the bowels of the earth, of a subtle substance, having
the nature of white earth, made one with a perfect union, up to the last
point and particle, until that which is humid is modified by that which
is dry, and the dry again by the humid, until the whole is absolutely homogeneous.
Also Vivific Silver, i.e., the philosophical substance which is to be distinguished
from common quicksilver, is the complementary part of the stone of the
philosophers, as the chemists tell us; the second principle, the mother
of all the metals, and in proportion as it copulates with their father,
the male sulphur, it engenders perfection and imperfection in metals, and
when it predominates the metals (like a foetus) derive more from the mother
than the father. Into that also from which they most originate are they
most resolved. Now quicksilver is twofold-natural and artificial.
Natural, possessing without excoction its own inherent colour, in which
state it is found among metals in the smith's troughs, commonly in the
form of filaments. True, Native Quicksilver, the mother and element of
metals. This species was known to Pliny, 1. 33, c. 6, who says: Within
these veins and mines there is a certain stone found which yields from
it a humour continually, and the same continues always liquid; men call
it Quicksilver. It may not have been seen by Dioscorides when he said:
Quicksilver is also met with among the debris of silver mines, exuded in
drops; others testify to having found it by itself among metals.
Artificial, which is made out of the minium secundarium of Pliny (l.
33, c. 7)or out of veins of miniumor cinnabar, which is found in our
mines. The first was known to Dioscorides (l. 5, c. 60). He describes the
method of its preservation, its use, its poisonous nature, and the antidotes
thereto. Consult also Pliny, 1. 20, c. 5, and 1. 28, c, 9, 10, as well
as other places and authors.
For the rest, it may be noted that the Greeks called both native and
artificial Quicksilver by the name Hudrargyron. But Pliny only distinguishes
the natural species, as appears by our former quotation, by the name of
Quicksilver, and that which is artificially produced from cinnabaror
derived from its ore, he distinguishes, if I err not, by the name Hydrargyron
- Rulandus: a classification which is also observed by the most learned Leonicenus.
It may be finally noted that Quicksilver, while in its liquid state, is
called crude in our workshops; when mortified, it is called concreted,
or by some sublimated. It is warm and moist in the fourth degree. Some
say that it is cold in the fourth degree. The chemists consider it both
cold and moist in the fourth degree, liquid in the third, white in the
second, and dark in the first degree. There are, moreover, other opinions.
The following species of Quicksilver are also enumerated:
1. Vivific Silver (Philosophical Quicksilver), i.e., Spiritor Mercury,
which is also the Fugitive Servant, Asoc, Ydrogiros, Sanlarum, Anzatig,
Asoc, Zaylat, Azehoc, Kyregiros, White Smoke, Alsohoc, Asob, Ayor, Azec,
Alozet, Azoar, Aurarid, the Dragon.
2. That which is obtained without smelting, pure among metals. Pure
3. Quicksilver smelted from veins of cinnabar.
4. That which is called Sublimated Quicksilver.
6. Mortifiedor killed.
7. Quicksilver solidifiedor fixed by art.
8. Native Minium.
9. A hard round nugget which the Arabs call Cinnabar.
10. Fragile Cinnabar.
11. Artificial Cinnabar.
12. Natural Cinnabaror Red Lead. The vein from which it comes.
13. A vein of Cinnabar in which Quicksilver exists, and which exudes
in drops when the ore is broken up.
14. Solid Quicksilver from the valley of Joachimica, similar in colour
to rude ruby coloured silver ore.
15. Similar to coccolite, with pyrites of gold.
16. Similar to coccolite in a white fissile stone.
17. A variety in a grey fissile stone.
18. Liver-coloured ore, rich in Quicksilver.
19. Similar to rude golden-red silver in silver coloured loadstone.
20. A swarthy-red Quicksilver ore from Hydrensis, which exudes drops
of Quicksilver when broken with a hammer.
21. Liver-coloured Quicksilver ore from Hydrensis.
22. Tawny-coloured Quicksilver ore in which there are layers of gold
23. Recrement of Quicksilver.
- Rulandus: are so called because they are similar to the clays
used by potters. Potters' Earth. There are numerous species of these clays,
which are distinguished by their colours, and are found in our mines, distributed
through many places.
1. White Seburg clay.
2. White clay of Anneberg.
3. White Islebian clay, sparkling with silver particles.
4. In white ashen Islebian deposit, which is found in copper mines under
a red sandy earth.
5. Fine grey ash-like clay of Misnense.
6. Light green ashy clay of Misnense, near Risa and the Elbe.
7. Cinereous clay from Herlesberg, which the people of Nuremberg combine
with a sandy earth to make those melting pots in which brass is manufactured.
8. Combined with a sandy earth ; clay for the melting-pot.
9. Slime of Misnensis, of beautiful yellow hue.
10. Yellow clay of Annebergor silver clay.
11. Like red earth from the district of Okroll.
12. Red Islebian clay, in which silver particles are sparkling.
13. Iron-coloured Bavarian clay, with which those furnaces are coloured
wherein iron is treated. An iron-grey sand.
14. Purple clay, which much abounds in my own country. When the spade
is removed it appears quite red. 15. Ash-coloured.
15. Bohemian, crumbling, loamy, rich in ore, abounding in garnet.
Colours may be manufactured from all these species, provided they are
not over-moist. The best jars and pots are made from them, if the clays
be treated rightly by the potters in moulds shaped according to the prescribed
rule. But this I leave to the potters.
- Argillaceous Earth
- is engrafted.
- is Silver ; hence lithargyros, argentiferous-stone. For
lithos signifies a stone.
1. Aridura is the wasting of any bodiesor menstrua, in what manner
soever. It is especially the shrinkage of metals, dissolution, dying. It
is also called Sideratio, Numbness, Sphacelus, Sphacelismus, Telia, Necrosis.
2. Aristolochia has a white flower, red inside, like a stone itself.
3. Arles Crudum
not translatable; the Germa context menas soimpletpons
or ninny, which seems irrelevant. What are refered to, however, are drops
of water falliong in June as the dew in May. Caled also Hydatis (a precious
stone of te colour of water), Stalagmi (consisting of drops; also a species
of vitriol, Stagen and Straax.
4. Armoniac Sal, i.e., star. Called also Genzir.
- Arnaudon's Green, (Plessy's Green)
- Chromium (III) Phosphate, CrPO4, a green pigment.
- Rulandus: Mandragora.
- Aromatic Oil
- Any "oil" with a sweet or exotic odor. Often an essential oil.
- ARSALTOS, ASPALTUM
- Rulandus: Asphalt.
- Arsenic Trioxide (As2O3)
Rulandus: of which there are three
species: White, Yellow and Citrine. Yellow orpiment, golden dye; crystalline
arsenic. Item: Red Greek Sandaraca which is of two kinds, rough and manufactured;
the former was a red arsenic mixed with brimstone, the latter a kind of
- Arsenic, Red
- Arsenic (II) sulfide, As2S2 (Realgar, Red Orpiment).
- Arsenic, White
- Arsenic (III) oxide, As2O3.
- Arsenical Sal Ammoniac
- Ammonium Arsenate (NH4)HAsO4.
- Rulandus: is the Greek Nitre, Effulgence of Metals; Salt
of Metals, and of Saturn Called also Artanekor Artanech. Found in many
places. It is also Luna, and our Venus. According to Gebir, it is Sulphur's
companion. It is the soul, the hermaphrodite, the means whereby Sulphur
and Mercury are united. It has community with both natures, and is, therefore,
called Sun and Moon.
- Rulandus: is Lacten, (?) milky.
- Rulandus: Deficiency of some member.
- ARTHOICUM or
- Rulandus: A red oil from the roots of
certain herbs obtained by their digestion with bread in horse-dung.
- Rulandus: Refiner, one versed in ores and metals; an assayer.
- Rulandus: Soap.
- Rulandus: Fetid inspissated Sap from an Indian tree.
- Rulandus: Blood of the Dragon.
- Rulandus: Vitriol or Red Atrament.
- Rulandus: Verdigris.
- Rulandus: Impetigo, a cutaneous disease, and Serpigo, twisted
ringworm. Ulcers and blemishes of the skin are of cognate character.
- Rulandus: is the German Alaun, Alum. It is a metallic
substance or vein of earth, which occupies a middle position between vitriol,
or copperas, and salt, and is found in mines. It is like a salt substance,
or liquor, issuing out of the earth (see Pliny, 1. 35, c. 15). It is composed
of water and slime; whence its nature is that of an earthy efflux. It is
drawn off in streams during winter, and it is perfected by fermentation
under the summer suns. It is like a vein of earth which is transmuted into
a white colour by excessive heat. Every species of chalcantum contains
alum. Now the name alum signifies something manufactured (in this place
the sense of the text is obscure); we may admit several species of alum
on the authority of the learned, and most certainly that alum is made in
hot places, and above all in those which are sulphureous and igneous. But
as there are indeed many kinds of alum, we proceed to tabulate them for
the sake of those who are interested in this matter.
- Rulandus: is the Lion.
- Rulandus: Haematites.
- ASEGEN or
- Rulandus: Blood of the Dragon.
- Rulandus: is Sol.
- Rulandus: is Broken Alum.
- Ash, Black
- Impure Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3).
- Ash, Pearl
- See Pearl Ash
- Ash, Pot
- See potash
- Ashes of Tin
- Stannic Oxide (SnO2)
- Rulandus: is the permixture or commixture of any metals with
- Rulandus: is Soot.
- ASPALTUM or
- Rulandus: Flower of Copper, Red Bitumen,
or Indian Bitumen.
- Rulandus: is Nutmeg.
- Rulandus: are worms which eat into boards, wood fretters,
formed between the boards.
- ASSANEGI, ASANIRGI, ASARAGI
- Rulandus: A powder which falls from walls
- Rulandus: A species of hard and dry Ash.
- A quantitative determination of the metal in an ore or alloy
- Rulandus: A species of hard and dry Ash.
- ASSINGAR, ASUGAR, ASMIAR, ASIM
- Rulandus: Names of verdigris.
- ASSER TRIANGULARIS
- Rulandus: Hand-barrow.
- ASSERCULI or
- Rulandus: Small Planksor Poles, on which
miners sit for working the mine.
- Rulandus: Boards joined by their sides.
- Rulandus: An outside plank or slab.
- Rulandus: An artificial alum of the appearance of the stone,
i.e., white. See Morien.
- Rulandus: Quartz.
1. Astroites Mas, male Astroites, shaped like half a globe. An asterite
full of stars.
2. The female variety, without the stars of the male, but having representations
of caterpillars, in which way the stars are thickly compacted by nature.
3. Little Globules of Asterite, on which prayers, like the Lord's Prayer,
were told formerly (Rosary Beads).
- ASTRUM SYNUS
- Rulandus: The Sidereal Celestial Star. Here star signifies
the virtue and potency of things, obtained by preparations, as for example,
the star of sulphur is the augmentation of sulphur, whereby it is changed
into a most notable oil. Note. The star of salt is its resolution into
a water or oil, by which it is endowed with more than its normal virtues.
In like manner, the star of mercury is its sublimation, by which it acquires
a wonderful increase of virtue and power, far exceeding, and far more subtle
than, what it naturally possesses. (German version : Astrum.) But in our
chemical art, it signifies the nature and power of a thing, which it receives
from preparation, as when mercury is sublimed, sulphur lighted with a spark
of fire, salt dissolved, and dissipated by itself. Then they become astral,
starry, and are called the Star of Mercury, Sulphuror Salt. The Star
is the Alkol or Quintessence, the sheer and clear power, the extract, the
cream, and the property of the thing, says Bacchus.
- Astrum Lunare Microcosmicum (Phosphorus, Phospheros, Fosperus)
- Elemental Phosphorous (P)
- Rulandus: is Galaxia, Constellation.
- Rulandus: is a stone which cuts other stones.
- Rulandus: is Azulite.
- Rulandus: is Atrament. Called also Soot.
- Rulandus: is Talc or Nitre.
- Rulandus: is a perforated vessel.
- Rulandus: A hook (literally); Uncus Aquinus, is a vessel for
- Called both philosophical and arcane, is an oven
adapted for composing the stone of the philosophers. The fire does not
touch the base, and the required heat is suitably and uniformly imparted.
Many vain things have been imagined by many persons concerning the method
of constructing this oven. But the one of our invention, even as it exceeds
all the other ovens which have been described by its superiority over all,
requires to be minutely treated of in this place, as much on account of
the contiguity of the fire as of the equable nature of the same. A circular
wall is erected of the height of one foot. On either side of this wall
a vacant space, with a small door, is left. This is for the removal of
the ashes. Above this structure there is placed a small iron gridiron,
and above the said gridiron we erect another small door, which is broader
at the bottom than at the top, and is an aperture through which the coals
can be stirred with a poker. When this turret has been set in an upright
position in the manner described, and has been filled with coals to the
top we cover it with a covering of clay. But at the same time, in the hindmost
part of the wall, and in that portion of it which is nearest to the gridiron,
we leave a small hole open, through which the heat may be able to approach
the Athanor, and we stop this aperture with a spatula (a long instrument
for stirring)or with an iron bar (some term it a register), which can
be raised and lowered. We make also at the top of the turret, of the breadth
of five inches, beneath the cover, a small aperture, through which the
index finger shall just be able to pass, by which the fire may draw the
air, as if a fuel, to itself. Over against the turret constructed in the
manner described, there is set another oven, which is the Athanor itself.
After the same manner, a circular wall, one foot and a half in height,
is constructed, which completely fits with its sides the posterior opening
of the first turret. On this wall we erect an oven, leaving on the top
of the furnace a small aperture, like an imperial thaler, whereby the heat
in this part, to some extent pressing upon the furnace, can pass upward
to the next nearest furnace. Then we again build an eighteen-inch wall
by the place where we commenced the furnace ; we cover the same with a
lid, again leaving a small aperture at the top, as in the case of the lower
one. However, it is necessary that in one side of this part there should
be left a clear space where the matter can be put in and taken out. For
in this middle part is the workshop where the matter is prepared in its
proper vessel, placed over a tripod. In order to fill up the clear space,
and close it up lest any air should be produced, a wellfitting lid is made
to.cover it. Finally, with a third lid, we cover the whole of this second
furnace, leaving, however, at the base four air-holes, which also have
covers, whereby the heat may be increased or diminished. This is the philosophical
distillatory oven, the Turba Clibanusor Reverberatory Oven of the Philosophers.
- Rulandus: is Rock Borax.
- Does not necessarily correspond to the modern picture of the ultimate particle of an
element. , for example, meant something more along
the lines of "ultimate particle of a substance"; to him the smallest unit of a
chemical compound was a compound atom (molecule in modern terminology),
while the smallest particle of a chemical element was a simple atom (now just
atom, although several of Dalton's simple atoms turned out to be molecules of elements,
such as O2).
- Rulandus: is variously classified.
1. Scrivener's Atrament, Writing Ink.
2. Printers' Ink, Oily Atrament.
3. Shoemakers' Inkor Tanners' Atrament, Shoemakers' Wax, Chalcanthum,
Hydride of Copper, Cobblers' Black, Copper Oreor Vitriol, red inside
and having red stripes.
4. Atramentum Rubeum, Red Burnt Vitriol.
5. Atramentum Tectorium, Vel Pictorium, Soot, Painters' Black.
6. Atramentum Album Tenue, soft, white Atrament, Hydrate of Copper Flower.
7. Atramentum Fossile, Native Copper-stone (apparently from which the
ore has been extracted).
8. Atramentum Candidum, Durum, Stalacticum, native Stalactical Vitriol.
9. Reddish and spongy native Hydride of Copper.
10. Red Stalactical Vitriol, of good quality, native in white earth.
11. Hard green Copper Stone washings, native in Goslaria.
12. Native porous Green Atrament.
13. Green hard Stalactical Atrament of Goslaria.
14. Grey Stalactical Atrament in a white earth, natural grey Copperas.
15. Grey hard native Copperas.
16. Green hard prepared Copperas or Vitriol of Goslar. Green hard native
17. Green hard porous prepared Copperas of Goslaria.
18. Grey native Neapolitan, with a pure yellow Sulphur.
19. Very beautiful cerulean prepared Copperas from Cyprus.
20. Green bluish prepared Copperas from Goslaria.
21. Blue Roman prepared Copperas.
22. Blue Hungarian prepared Copperas.
23. Blue Hungarian Copperas combined with a very white Alum.
24. Blue prepared Copperas from Radeberg, similar to Pannonian.
25. Radeberg Copperas combined with Sulphur.
26. Blue prepared Silesian Copperas combined with Alum.
27. White hard transparent sublimed Vitriol or Copperas.
28. Distilled Copperas or Oil of Vitriol.
29. Burnt Vitriol.
30. Burnt Cyprian Copperas.
31. Recrement of Atrament, Salt, Nitre, and Alum after distillation.
The dead body of Aqua Fortis.
32. Recrement of Atrament from which Sulphur of Radeberg is afterwards
- Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4)
Rulandus: is Akata; another variety is Alfrein; another,
Kalkadis; another, Chalcanthum, is Egythian Atrament.
Duenec, Malagislaca, Black Chalk, Brittle
- ATRAMENTUM ALBUM
- Rulandus: is White Vitriol.
- ATRAMENTUM CITRINUM
- Rulandus: is fixed Vitriol.
- ATRAMENTUM HISPANICUM
- Rulandus: is, I believe, Vitriol.
- ATRAMENTUM RUBEUM
- Rulandus: Red Atrament, is called Asaric or Asagi.
- ATRAMENTUM SUTORIUM
- Rulandus: is nothing else but Vitriol, i.e., Chalcanthum,
i.e., a sort of Flower of Copper. It is not however Kalkou Anthosor true
Flower of Copper, as we have before stated. Chalcanthusor Vitriolor
Atramentum Sutorium, is one thing; the ancient Flower of Copper is another,
and was obtained, among other ways, from the washings of copper ore, while
Flower of Copper has in modern times been given as an alternative name
of Verdigrisor Copper-Rust. Once again then Atramentum Sutorium is Vitriol
formerly used in leather tanning. But because it is corrosive to shoes,
another kind was devised by shoemakers, which is in fact our present Cobblers'
Black. But with the ancients Atramentum meant Vitriol, that metallic substance
which is simply a congealed water, having a quality of copper, but differing
in its form and nature with the stone to which it adheres. In a discourse
upon springs and rivers, Seneca tells us that the earth contains various
humours, and a spirit like that of the human body where there are also
various humours, of which some are vital, some corruptible, some more fatty,
and some which in time become dried or hardened. Of this substance are
all metals which are melted out of the moisture in stone. Such also, in
like manner, are those metals which chemists have not inappropriately termed
spirit, and which are different from things which flow. Dioscorides (1.
5, c. 64) says that soft and hard Atrament are both Sutoriumor Shoemaker's
Atrament, but that there are three species:
i. That which is concreted from humours which are collected by droppingsin
mines, and is called Stillatic Vitriol. The best quality is furnished by
copperine metals. This species is also called Pinarion and Distillatic.
It is the German native Distillatic Vitriol.
2. That which is termed Pecton, i.e., concreted and congealed Vitriol;
which forms in caves and grottos, and brought afterwards by a simple process
into excavated trenches, assumes a concrete form.
Now, these two species are natural, and differ in shape and manner of
formation. This is the German Copper-smokeor Soot of Copperor Pyrites,
concreted or congelated in the mines. Both species have their medical uses;
they are astringent, healing, and induce the formation of skin. Classified
according to colour, there are three species of Shoemakers' Black or Vitriol.
White Vitriol, not mentioned by Dioscorides, but which Pliny describes
(1. 34, c. 12). On account of its white colouror similitude of colour,
he tells us that it was called Leucoion (white violet), and is used by
fullers in their trade. Shoemakers' Wax and Sory are akin to this species.
For the rest, the white violet Leucoion of Theophrastus and Dioscorides
is well known in physics. (But this probably refers to the herb called
Leucoion. Some editions of Pliny read Lonchoton, following Dioscorides,
instead of Leucoion in the passage cited above).
The second species of Atrament is green. The third is blue, and is said
by Dioscorides to be the best stillatic atrament; it is heavy, close-grained,
and translucent. By others it is called Lonchoton (see above), because
it forms in the figure of a javelin. The method of operating upon this
species by fire is taught by Dioscorides: And a great thing verily is the
knowledge of the virtues of Flower of Copper, i.e., of Verdigris, according
to the moderns, and of Chrysocolla, and of the Vitriols.
Manufactured Atrament is made in Spain, and the mode of its manufacture
will be also found in Dioscorides, who further informs us that it is of
high service in dyeing and colouring. By the Germans it is called Hydride
of Copper, which is manufactured either simple or in clusters; that is
reputed to be the best which is of a blue colour.
Pliny (1. 94, c, 12) divides Chalcanthum, i.e., Vitriol and Shoemakers'
Black, into Native Mined and into Manufactured. Of the first there are
1. That which is dug up in trenchesor obtained from caves.
2. That which comes from mines in the rocks.
3. That which is obtained from sea-water, on admitting sweet water,
and by means of violent heat.
The manufactured species is made from materials found in those pits
and pools of Spain where there is the same kind of water from which native
Atrament is derived.
The Metamorphosis, transmutationor transfiguration of these Minerals
by the Artifice of Nature alone.
Great is the Knowledge of Flower of Copper, the Verdigris of the moderns,
of Chrysocol, of the Vitriols, and other species of Atrament.
I. Green Zegor Shoemakers’ Blackor Vitriolor Chalcanthum (native
or changed or passes into:
1. Misy, very easily.
2. After a long time into Chalchitis, as regards outward appearance;
internally it is still Shoemakers’ Black.
3. Filaments, when it is old. Manufactured Chalchitis is then wrought
from it. Also Chalcanthum changed into Chachitis can then be made into
II. Chalcitisor honey-yellow Zeg, according to Pliny; brass colour,
according to Diosorides (Zeg is the name given by the Arabs, who also call
it Colcothar), has a middle position between marchasite (i.e., Black Zeg,
or Pyritesor Black Atrament), and Vitriol (i.e., Green Zegor Chalcanthum),
and when old can be changed, and passes into:
Sory, very easily;
Sory and Melateria pass on the other hand into:
Chalcanthum Leucoion, i.e., White.
The Arabs call Atrament Zeg simply, and distinguish these species thereof:
1. Black Zeg, i.e., Black Atrament, i.e., Marchasite, i.e., Pyrites.
For Marchasiteor dissolved Pyrites, makes Ink, which Serapion calls Black
Zeg, which mixed with wine and vine garis resolved into a black colour;
Avicenna calls it (De Atramento, 1. 2) White Atrament, because before
it is dissolved it is white.
2. Zeg Colcotaror Chalcitisor Zegi, of a citron hueor copper colour,
according to Dioscorides. Also called Citrine Atrament. There are in all
four varieties: Red Zegor Ruby Zegor Ruby Atramentor Red Atrament.
It is called Asuria.
3. Green Zegor Green Atrament, which is Chalcanthum or Vitriol, already
described. And this is Shoemakers' Black.
Serapion in his chapter on Zeg affirms that he has himself seen in the
mines Black Zeg, i.e., Marcasite, i.e., Pyrites, and afterwards Colcotar,
i.e., Chalcitis, and Green Zeg, i.e., Vitriolor Chalcanthum, in combination.
And he says that these three species differ in subtlety, and grossness.
For out of them is derived the grosser kind, i.e., Black Zeg, i.e., Pyrites
; and also the finer, i.e., Green Zeg, i.e., Chalcanthumor Shoemakers'
Black. But Colcotar is a middle species between the two others. This is
also called Chalcitis. Moreover, Green Zeg and Colcotar are liquefied by
fire, but Black Zeg is not easily melted.
Green Zeg, Chalcanthumor Shoemakers' Black, more especially the Cyprian
kind, is solid, though it is the finer species of Atrament, and it is easily
changed into Misy. Outwardly also it becomes Chalcitis, though inwardly
it is still Shoemakers' Black. This transformation is very beautiful. All
these are natural metals, namely, white, greenor blue Chalcanthum ; also
Chalcitis, which is copper-colour ; also Misy, which is gold-colour ; also
Sory, which is almost the hue of Melanteria (Shoemakers' wax) ; and they
all are mentioned by Galenus, and were used by him in plasters; nor were
they less valued by others of the ancients, for they were held in high
respect of old, and were used universally in Cyprus. I do not know whether
they are found in our silver mines, but I do not deny that they might be,
if they were diligently sought. They are met with in the copper mines of
Goslaria and in other places, though but rarely, it must be allowed. It
is a remarkable thing that wherever Marcasite, i.e., Pyrites, exists there
also are all the others, namely, Chalcanthum, Chalcitis, Misy, Sory. All
these species blacken, and hence are called Atramen. Chalcanthum is hot
and dry in the fourth degree, according to Paulus.
We have treated of Shoemakers' Black from the ancient and the modern
We must now briefly consider with Dioscorides the subject of Scriveners'
Blackor Writing Ink. The methods of its manufacture which are described
by Dioscorides, are, however, quite obsolete. We now compound ink for writing
in a very different way, namely, from Vitriol, Gall, Gum, and in other
fashions, as our clerks have reason to know, seeing how inks vary with
the ingredients that compose them. It would be permissible to classify
writing ink into natural and manufactured. The first is an extract well
known to all scriveners, namely, Sepia, derived from the Cuttle-fish, on
which consult Dioscorides, Pliny, and Nicander. It is also obtained from
Eruca, a kind of plant which some call white Mustard, on which also consult
Dioscorides in his 1. 2. The manufactured species, according to the same
writer, are these:
1. From the Resin of Pine Trees.
2. From the Soot of other Resins, and Corrosives of Painters.
But among us manufactured ink is obtained:
1. From Stone, which we shall treat of in the section De Paigite.
2. ? From burnt Bark (ex carta combusta
- Rulandus: but there is no such
word as Carta).
3. From the Seed of the Alder.
4. From Milk and Curds [? the text reads cate, but there is again
no such word in Latin].
5. From the Soot of oily or fat substances.
6. From Vitriol, Gall, and Gum. Pliny (1.35. c. 6.) gives other methods
- Rulandus: as from Sulphur-coloured Earth, from Coals, Soot, etc.
- Rulandus: i.e., Stone.
- Rulandus: i.e., Flower of Copper.
- Rulandus: i.e., a small clay Coffer.
- Rulandus: is a name given to some Medicaments, also called
Magnetite, which have an attractive power.
- The action of rubbing one body against another; mutual friction.
- Rulandus: is Glass.
- Rulandus: Signifies Egg-shells.
- AZOCH, AZOG, AZET, BESECH, BESEC
- Rulandus: are names
- Rulandus: Fuse-Mallet.
- AURIA MASSULA
- Rulandus: Small mass of Gold. Queen.
- Rulandus: Brassor Ore. Copper Ore, etc.
- Arsenic trisulfide (As2S3)
Rulandus: is Orpiment, Arsenical Earth, the Operment,
Yellow Gold, of the Germans, and is used by painters. It is a native metallic
substance, and is found in combination with Sandarac (Dioscorides, 1. 5,
c. 70). It is covered with a crust, and glitters with a gold colour. In
its fundamental nature it is a certain kind of sulphur, and is, so to speak,
a terrestrial excrement in the caverns of the earth, which in the long
process of time is turned into Orpiment. There is also a fissile species,
of scaly character, found in Mysia Minor on the Hellespont. Another variety
is pallid, cloddy and granular, having the colour of Sandarac; it comes
from Pontus and Cappadocia. The Arabs say that Orpiment is similar to Lapis
Specularis (which see), but the latter has no unguent quality. The Arabs,
however, confound Sandarac with Arsenic, and, in fact, give the name of
Arsenic indiscriminately both to Sandarac and Orpiment, distinguishing
only their variety according to colour. Chemists as well as physicians
call our Sandarac Red Arsenic; and Arsenical Earth what we call Orpiment.
Avicenna speaks of White Arsenic, but true White Arsenic is never found
in mines, and his description may possibly refer to certain manufactured
species, one of which is mud-colour and the other white, which are manufactured
chemically, and are both at the present day known only by the general name
Concerning all these species see Serapion (lib. Agg. cap. Harmech) and
Avicenna (cap. on Arsenic), who treat of its good and evil qualities. Sublimed
Arsenicor Arsenical Salt, destroys life, and White Arsenic in its natural
state is also fatal. They are all poisonous. (See Diosc., 1. 6.)
Orpiment is also the Blood of the Stone. The Turba calls it the female
which we use to colour the Sun and to cook with Mercury. It is, however,
genuine Sulphur. Quicksilver Orpiment is Sulphur which rises from the composition.
There is also Auripigmentum Lempinas, which is Lily-water, Crusty Orpiment,
Cloddy Orpiment, dry Yellow, Cloddy Orpiment, mixed with Sandarac, Ruby
Orpimentor Realgar, white Sublimated Orpiment, differing from that of
the mines, and Sublimed Orpiment from black, ruddy, and mud-coloured veins
- Latin for Gold, hence the symbol Au; aurum fulminans (fulminating gold): gold
hydrazide, AuHNNH2, an olive-green powder that can explode on concussion.
Rulandus: Gold, called Sol by chemists, and dedicated to the
Sun, is the most tempered of all the metals; it is said to be warm and
dry in the second grade, and red in the third grade. It is a metallic body,
of citrine colour, effulgent, heavy, equably digested in the womb of earth,
washed with mineral water during a very long time. It is composed of pure
living Silver, fixed, and of a clear red; also of a clean, fixed, red,
incombustible Sulphur. In fine, it is the most subtle substance of Quicksilver.
Truly we have beheld Quicksilver absorbing gold which it receives most
willingly, even as a mother receives her son. Further, Gold consists of
a small quantity of clean Sulphur and of a pure redness; the greater the
quantity of Vivific Silver, the more does it derive from the mother than
from the father. Purest Sulphur copulating as father with Quicksilver as
mother, generates finest Gold as a son. Briefly, coagulate Quicksilver,
together with Sulphur, like a pure fire, yet not burning, produces Gold.
This is that beloved son which Nature ever intends to beget, after which
she ever strives ; but various accidents intervene and procreate the other
metals. Now Gold is duplex-native and prepared by fire.
Pure Native Gold, which is naturally pure, whose lumps or masses are
called in Spain Palacrae (ingots), and by the Germans Solid Gold, this
1. In rivers, such as the Tagus, Elbe, Saale, Schwartza, etc., as you
may learn from the gold washers.
2. In Arabian mountains, in mines, and wells; in part pure, in part
with its grains cleaving to a certain species of white stone which the
Germans call Quartz. Found plentifully at Cottenheyd.
3. In the heads of fish which we call trout.
Gold prepared by fire or by melting:
1.Out of Pyrites, of the colour of ashes and leaden ore or dross.
2. Out of a certain purple Earth, so tempered and effected by the vapour
and breath of the earth, that it is fruitful of gold, and in many places
gold is melted out of it in the furnace.
3. Out of Boraxor Antiphane. Out of Cerulean (Jasulis), of which we
shall speak in its proper place. Situation, however, as we have frequently
had reason to see, is serviceable to the quality of gold. There are differences
in distinct grades between Arabian, Spanish, Hungarian, and German gold.
Gold is the substance and ferment in the philosophical gold which doth
ascend into the height. For the Mercury of the Sun is a seed, according
to Bernard. It is the Soul and the Red Knight who takes the White Lady
in marriage. It is then he is robed in his kingly apparel, even the white
gold, wherein is no metal but only gold. It must, however, be purified
by means of Cement, through the repository of ashes, and very carefully
cleansed by means of Salt and Brickdust. When it is dissolved with water,
it is made into a spirit by the intervention of Chrysolite. Mix Gold with
Gold, then Gold cannot become Silver unless it be corrupted, adulterated,
and black; and when even it becomes Silver, then does it become Gold. But
then we must apply processes. Says the adept Senior: The Sun rises when
the Moon increases, and is hidden in the same; it is next drawn out from
thence. The Body of the Sun and Water of the Sun is Mercury of the Philosophers.
Yes, it is threefold, being black, white, and red. It is called the imperishable,
because it cannot be destroyed. The Moon makes the Sun soft, spongy, and
fluid, and it refines it from impurity. It is the Mother and the Field
wherein Gold should be sown. Otherwise we need it not, except in Sun and
Moon. Says Theophrastus in his ninth book of Archidoxes : The essential
being of Gold is devoid of Salt that congeals, therefore it penetrates
and dyes the metals. The ordinary Gold is dead, but the philosophical is
alive, and is a true nutriment. The common Gold goes out of men as it enters
them. These are the words of Rupecissa in his third chapter. But Paracelsus
in his book on Minerals has this concerning the Generation of Gold. Know
that there is a Sulphur which is in the highest degree sublimated by Nature,
and cleansed from all its blackness and refuse, and so highly diaphanised
that there can be nothing among metals which isor could be, higher in
the bodily order. This also is the Sulphur which is the first matter of
Gold, one of the three principles. If the alchemists might find it
(it is a gold tree and it is possible to discover it by its roots)
then would they have cause to rejoice. For it is the Mercury of the Philosophers,
which is produced from Gold, not that other which is made from Mars and
Venus; it is the Scrupulus (i.e., the Rough Stone), the Universal Substance.
Now the Mercury, by a metallic art, is separated to the greatest possible
extent from all terrestrial matters and accidents; it is transformed only
into a pure mineral body, in every respect transparent. This is the Mercury
of the Philosophers, which generates Gold, and is the second part of the
First Matter. Afterwards comes the Salt, which is the third of the prime
principles of Sol and of the Tree out of which Gold grows; it is crystallized
to the greatest possible extent, and so perfectly separated and purified
from all its sharpness, acidity, and flavour of alum and vitriol, that
it is said to have no beginning, but is free in itself, to the greatest
extent disengaged, and in the highest degree diaphanised. Now are the three
Gold is the Microcosmos, a small world. It has three principles and
four elements; it is a heavenly substance, heaven, and the rays of the
Sun. Therefore it withstands fire, and is the most eminent medicine. It
has in itself all the stars of heaven and all the fruits of earth. It is
called Incombustible Sulphur, Italian Antimony, Metallic Glass, Loadstone,
Vegetable Iron (? the labiate plant called Siderite), Marcasite, Cercilium
Auri, Gold-Spiral, Purple Gold (i.e., Powder of Cassius), Chrysocolla (Borax,
also a precious stone), Gold Stone, i.e., Chrysites, a precious stone of
the colour of gold, the Green Mountain, Borax, Chrysocome (another name
of Chrysites, but it may also mean Flax-Weedor Beard of Jupiter), Gold
Grain, Chalcedony. There are, however, several species of Gold:
1. Pure gold, which has not been tried by fire, such as is washed out
from sand in the Elbe, and in many rivers of Misena. Solid washed gold,
liquid gold, gold grains, etc.
2 Gold in an unmixed state, mined in a mountain of Carpathos. Solid
3. Gold obtained in a small quantity from a ferraceous ore in the same
4. Solid gold in a hard white flint, from the same mountain.
5. Solid gold from the same mountain, found in a stone called Armenian.
Solid gold in pot-stone.
6. Thin plates and dust of purest gold, in a hard white flint, from
the borders of the province of Pannonia in Hungary.
7. Yellow, argentiferous gold in an ore containing Quicksilver.
8. Gold mixed with silver in an ashen flint, obtained from Noricum,
between the Danube and the Alpsor from Styria, and called Electrum, which
is gold with a fifth part of silver.
9. Gold combined with silver after purification by fire.
10. Gold prepared by fire and separated from other metals. Fine gold,
called by the Greeks, Obrussa, Assayed Gold.
11. Gold which is combined with silver, equal or clean gold.
12. Gold coloured by copper.
13. Gold beaten into wire.
14. Gold beaten into plates.
15. Pellets, found in streams, near the bridge of Honstein, and out
of which gold is extracted.
16. Pellets or shavings of gold from the same place. Solid gold strips
17. Veins rich in gold, found in the mountain of Carpathos.
18. Light pellets of gold from the same place.
19. Gold filings, collected, cleansed, and made into pellets.
20. Froth of gold.
21. Refuse of gold.
- AURUM COCTUM
- Rulandus: is Gold-leaf.
- AURUM COTICULA EXPERIRI
- Rulandus: To test gold with touchstone.
- Aurum Fulminans
- An explosive gold compound prepared from gold dissoled in "Aqua Regia" and a
solution of Ammonium Carbonate. The exact formula is still in doubt.
- AURUM LATUS
- Rulandus: is gold in a weak tincture or colouring, which
dyes those substances with which it is combined.
- AURUM OBRIZUM
- Rulandus: is Gold Filings.
- AURUM PHILOSOPHORUM
- Rulandus: Gold of the Philosophers, i.e., Lead.
- AURUM POTABILE
- Rulandus: Potable Gold, devoid of corrosive quality,
known to very few, and, among these, they who prepare it at the present
day do so rather to the destruction than salvation of men.
- AURUM VITAE
- Rulandus: Gold of Life, is Precipitated Goldor Mercury
precipitated with Gold, and reverberated to a deep red. A precipitate made
with gold, and brought by means of fire to an intense redness.
- AURUM VIVUM
- Rulandus: Living Gold is Quicksilver.
- Rulandus: is another superstition which some have devised
from observation of the winds, in such fashion that when the stars which
govern the winds cause more violence in them than is common, thence men,
more idle than curious, draw an omen of the future.
- Rulandus: is Pure or Limpid Water.
- AVIS HERMETIS
- Rulandus: is that Red Lead in the middle of the egg which
rises above itself, which flies on high, and again descends to earth for
its nourishment, for earth gives nourishment to all things. It is also
the Soil in the Matrix, and is called otherwise the Goose.
- Evaporation,escape, act of "flying away."
- Rulandus: a small axle-tree, beam, poleor roller.
- AXICULUS FERREUS
- Rulandus: Axle-pin.
- AXUNGIA DE MUMIA
- Rulandus: Fat of a dead body, sometimes written Mummy
of Marrow, is the marrow of bones.
- Rulandus: is Burnt Copper.
- Rulandus: is Red Earth.
- Rulandus: is Verdigris.
- AZAMO, CALOR INDUS
- Rulandus: Unknown.
- Rulandus: Ammoniac.
- Rulandus: Orpiment.
- Rulandus: Atrament.
- Rulandus: Green Atramant.
- Rulandus: Broken Alum.
- Rulandus: Hematite.
- AZEG, AZEZI, AZEGI
- Rulandus: Names of Vitriol.
- AZEGI AREC
- Rulandus: Water of Atrament, Ink, Blacking Water.
- Rulandus: is melted butter.
- Rulandus: is Red Leador Cinnabar.
- Rulandus: is a black stone found in gold ore. It is also moss
which grows on the
- Rulandus: is Burnt Copperor Plates of Copper.
- Rulandus: is a stone on which Salt is encrusted.
- Rulandus: is Flower of Copperor Burnt Copper.
- Rulandus: is our Mercury. It is a double Mercury of the Material
Stone. Therefore they say: Azoch and fire are enough to whiten the Laton,
and to prepare the whole work. In the first work it appears white. Then
the woman overcomes the man, who thereupon becomes black. According to
Braccesca, when Azoch turns into Salt, then it washes the Latonor the
metallic Sulphur. When it does not part with the red and become white,
then it is useless. This Sulphur is called the Male. At first it is red,
and when this redor the sap which causes the redness, departs, then it
is said that the Sulphur has departed.
- Rulandus: is Sweet Alum.
- Azote, Asotic Air
- Nitrogen (N2) Phlogisticated Air; see also Mephitic
Air, named because it did not support respiration and was therefore
"lifeless". Azote is still the French word for this element.
- Rulandus: is Quicksilver, drawn out of any metallic body, and
properly the corporeal Mercury, the Mercury of the metallic body. With
Paracelsus especially, it is the universal medicine, to which all things
are alike, uncovering every species of substance, and imparting an immense
strength, and catholic central virtue. It includes in itself all other
medicines as well as the first principle of all other substances, their
accidents excluded. Enclosed in the pommel of a sword, great exploits shall
be performed by the wearer into whatever place he goes. For the rest, Quicksilver
is extracted out of metal. But Theophrastus celebrates one Azoth for its
eminent medicinal virtue. Some think it to be the philosophical stone.
Azoth is drawn from bodies by means of Mercury, and is called a living
spirit, a spirit endowed with a soul, our Water, Vinegar. Mary of Egypt
says: When the Laton is whitened, it is called Azoth. Therefore men say
Azoth whitens the Laton, then the Laton again whitens other things, and
when again red, it re-assumes the name of Laton. Gebir says Azoth is the
Mercury which is drawn from substances through the Mercury of the Philosophers.
Therefore it is, and it becomes, an elixir, i.e., a substance dissolved
in Mercurial Water. It is called in Arabic Azoth, a dissolved silver; it
is also the metallic earth in the mines, and is called Vitrefied or Vitre-coloured
Azoth. It is white and shining, but red internally; also it is black and
green to look at, and it has a colour like a poisonous earth. It is nearly
related to the metals.
- Rulandus: is the chemical vase.
- Rulandus: is Red Coral.
- Rulandus: is weight; also berry-covered, pearl-covered.
- Rulandus: See Turba, fol. 30.
- A blue pigment from cobalt
- Rulandus: is Red Vitriol.
- Basic Copper (cubric) Carbonate (2CuCO3 . Cu(OH)2
- Rulandus: is the Arabic for Alum. Called also Azel.
- Rulandus: is Vermilion or Red Lead.